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Author Owens, A.C.S.; Lewis, S.M.
Title The impact of artificial light at night on nocturnal insects: A review and synthesis Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 8 Issue 22 Pages 11337-11358
Keywords Animals; Review
Abstract In recent decades, advances in lighting technology have precipitated exponential increases in night sky brightness worldwide, raising concerns in the scientific community about the impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on crepuscular and nocturnal biodiversity. Long-term records show that insect abundance has declined significantly over this time, with worrying implications for terrestrial ecosystems. The majority of investigations into the vulnerability of nocturnal insects to artificial light have focused on the flight-to-light behavior exhibited by select insect families. However, ALAN can affect insects in other ways as well. This review proposes five categories of ALAN impact on nocturnal insects, highlighting past research and identifying key knowledge gaps. We conclude with a summary of relevant literature on bioluminescent fireflies, which emphasizes the unique vulnerability of terrestrial light-based communication systems to artificial illumination. Comprehensive understanding of the ecological impacts of ALAN on diverse nocturnal insect taxa will enable researchers to seek out methods whereby fireflies, moths, and other essential members of the nocturnal ecosystem can coexist with humans on an increasingly urbanized planet.
Address Department of Biology Tufts University Medford Massachusetts
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30519447; PMCID:PMC6262936 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2132
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Author Walker II, W.H.; Meléndez‐Fernández, O.H.; Nelson, R.J.; Reiter, R.J.
Title Global climate change and invariable photoperiods: A mismatch that jeopardizes animal fitness Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 9 Issue 17 Pages 10044-10054
Keywords Animals; Review; Photoperiod
Abstract The Earth's surface temperature is rising, and precipitation patterns throughout the Earth are changing; the source of these shifts is likely anthropogenic in nature. Alterations in temperature and precipitation have obvious direct and indirect effects on both plants and animals. Notably, changes in temperature and precipitation alone can have both advantageous and detrimental consequences depending on the species. Typically, production of offspring is timed to coincide with optimal food availability; thus, individuals of many species display annual rhythms of reproductive function. Because it requires substantial time to establish or re‐establish reproductive function, individuals cannot depend on the arrival of seasonal food availability to begin breeding; thus, mechanisms have evolved in many plants and animals to monitor and respond to day length in order to anticipate seasonal changes in the environment. Over evolutionary time, there has been precise fine‐tuning of critical photoperiod and onset/offset of seasonal adaptations. Climate change has provoked changes in the availability of insects and plants which shifts the timing of optimal reproduction. However, adaptations to the stable photoperiod may be insufficiently plastic to allow a shift in the seasonal timing of bird and mammal breeding. Coupled with the effects of light pollution which prevents these species from determining day length, climate change presents extreme evolutionary pressure that can result in severe deleterious consequences for individual species reproduction and survival. This review describes the effects of climate change on plants and animals, defines photoperiod and the physiological events it regulates, and addresses the consequences of global climate change and a stable photoperiod.
Address Department of Neuroscience, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; William.Walker2(at)hsc.wvu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2619
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Author Portugal, S. J., White, C. R., Frappell, P. B.m Green, J. A., & Butler, P. J.
Title Impacts of “supermoon” events on the physiology of a wild bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue Pages 7974-7984
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract The position of the Moon in relation to the Earth and the Sun gives rise to several predictable cycles, and natural changes in nighttime light intensity are known to cause alterations to physiological processes and behaviors in many animals. The limited research undertaken to date on the physiological responses of animals to the lunar illumination has exclusively focused on the synodic lunar cycle (full moon to full moon, or moon phase) but the moon's orbit—its distance from the Earth—may also be relevant. Every month, the moon moves from apogee, its most distant point from Earth—and then to perigee, its closest point to Earth. Here, we studied wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) to investigate the influence of multiple interacting lunar cycles on the physiology of diurnally active animals. Our study, which uses biologging technology to continually monitor body temperature and heart rate for an entire annual cycle, asks whether there is evidence for a physiological response to natural cycles in lunar brightness in wild birds, particularly “supermoon” phenomena, where perigee coincides with a full moon. There was a three‐way interaction between lunar phase, lunar distance, and cloud cover as predictors of nighttime mean body

temperature, such that body temperature was highest on clear nights when the full

moon coincided with perigee moon. Our study is the first to report the physiological responses of wild birds to “supermoon” events; the wild geese responded to the combination of two independent lunar cycles, by significantly increasing their body temperature at night. That wild birds respond to natural fluctuations in nighttime ambient light levels support the documented responses of many species to anthropogenic sources of artificial light, that birds seem unable to override. As most biological systems are arguably organized foremost by light, this suggests that any interactions between lunar cycles and local weather conditions could have significant impacts on the energy budgets of birds.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2628
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Author Craggs, J.; Guest, J.R.; Davis, M.; Simmons, J.; Dashti, E.; Sweet, M.
Title Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication (up) Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 7 Issue 24 Pages 11066-11078
Keywords Moonlight; Animals; *Acropora; *gametogenic cycle ex situ; *insolation; *lunar cycle; *photoperiod
Abstract For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Coupled with appropriate coral husbandry, these mesocosms were successful in inducing, for the first time, broadcast coral spawning in a fully closed artificial ex situ environment. Four Acropora species (A. hyacinthus, A. tenuis, A. millepora, and A. microclados) from two geographical locations, kept for over 1 year, completed full gametogenic cycles ex situ. The percentage of colonies developing oocytes varied from ~29% for A. hyacinthus to 100% for A. millepora and A. microclados. Within the Singapore mesocosm, A. hyacinthus exhibited the closest synchronization to wild spawning, with all four gravid colonies releasing gametes in the same lunar month as wild predicted dates. Spawning within the GBR mesocosm commenced at the predicted wild spawn date but extended over a period of 3 months. Gamete release in relation to the time postsunset for A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, and A. tenuis was consistent with time windows previously described in the wild. Spawn date in relation to full moon, however, was delayed in all species, possibly as a result of external light pollution. The system described here could broaden the number of institutions on a global scale, that can access material for broadcast coral spawning research, providing opportunities for institutions distant from coral reefs to produce large numbers of coral larvae and juveniles for research purposes and reef restoration efforts.
Address Aquatic Research Facility Environmental Sustainability Research Centre College of Life and Natural Sciences University of Derby Derby UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29299282; PMCID:PMC5743687 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2698
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Author Abay, K.A.; Amare, M.
Title Night light intensity and women's body weight: Evidence from Nigeria Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication (up) Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol
Volume 31 Issue Pages 238-248
Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Lighting/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nigeria/epidemiology; Obesity/epidemiology; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prevalence; *Urbanization; Young Adult; *Bmi; *Nigeria; *Night light; *Obesity; *Overweight; *Urbanization
Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing in many African countries and hence becoming regional public health challenges. We employ satellite-based night light intensity data as a proxy for urbanization to investigate the relationship between urbanization and women's body weight. We use two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey data from Nigeria. We employ both nonparametric and parametric estimation approaches that exploit both the cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in night light intensities. Our empirical analysis reveals nonlinear relationships between night light intensity and women's body weight measures. Doubling the sample's average level of night light intensity is associated with up to a ten percentage point increase in the probability of overweight. However, despite the generally positive relationship between night light intensity and women's body weight, the strength of the relationship varies across the assorted stages of night light intensity. Early stages of night light intensity are not significantly associated with women's body weight, while higher stages of nightlight intensities are associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity. Given that night lights are strong predictors of urbanization and related economic activities, our results hint at nonlinear relationships between various stages of urbanization and women's body weight.
Address International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), USA. Electronic address: M.Amare@cgiar.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30312904 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2714
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