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Author Griepentrog, J.E.; Labiner, H.E.; Gunn, S.R.; Rosengart, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright environmental light improves the sleepiness of nightshift ICU nurses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Critical Care (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Crit Care  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 295  
  Keywords Circadian; Light; Night shift; Nurse; Shift work sleep disorder  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Shift work can disturb circadian homeostasis and result in fatigue, excessive sleepiness, and reduced quality of life. Light therapy has been shown to impart positive effects in night shift workers. We sought to determine whether or not prolonged exposure to bright light during a night shift reduces sleepiness and enhances psychomotor performance among ICU nurses.

METHODS: This is a single-center randomized, crossover clinical trial at a surgical trauma ICU. ICU nurses working a night shift were exposed to a 10-h period of high illuminance (1500-2000 lx) white light compared to standard ambient fluorescent lighting of the hospital. They then completed the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Psychomotor Vigilance Test. The primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed using the paired t test. A p value <0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS: A total of 43 matched pairs completed both lighting exposures and were analyzed. When exposed to high illuminance lighting subjects experienced reduced sleepiness scores on the Stanford Sleepiness Scale than when exposed to standard hospital lighting: mean (sem) 2.6 (0.2) vs. 3.0 (0.2), p = 0.03. However, they committed more psychomotor errors: 2.3 (0.2) vs. 1.7 (0.2), p = 0.03.

CONCLUSIONS: A bright lighting environment for ICU nurses working the night shift reduces sleepiness but increases the number of psychomotor errors.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03331822 . Retrospectively registered on 6 November 2017.
 
  Address Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. rosengartmr@upmc.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-8535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30424793 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2070  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lessard, B. url  openurl
  Title Shot in the Dark: Nocturnal Philosophy and Night Photography Type Book Chapter
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Critical Distance in Documentary Media Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 45-67  
  Keywords Society; Art  
  Abstract This chapter examines the neglected practice of night photography, and how it critically addresses the environmental, sociohistorical, and urban issues in recent series by Christina Seely, Bruno Lessard, Michel Huneault, and Jeanine Michna-Bales. Drawing on Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas, and the emerging field of night studies to create a nocturnal philosophy—a dark photology—with which to frame the multifaceted issues at the heart of the series, the author examines the value that these photographic artists place upon night to document light pollution around the world, ongoing urban transformations in China, an environmental catastrophe and its aftermath in Québec, and the landscape of the Underground Railroad in the United States. These four series demonstrate how night photography offers a unique critical perspective on some of the most pressing problems of our age, and how these artists distance themselves from the predominantly diurnal register of documentary media.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2319  
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Author Lawrence, B.K.; Fehr, W.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reproductive Response of Soybeans to Night Interruption1 Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication (up) Crop Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue 5 Pages 755  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Artificial lights may be used to delay flowering of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. Previous research has suggested that night interruption imposed every other night would delay flowering as much as every-night interruption. Our objective was to evaluate the reproductive development of cultivars when exposed to night interruption every night compared with exposure every other night. One cultivar of each Maturity Group 00 through V was grown in the field at Ames, Iowa during 1978 and 1979. The four light treatments imposed every night or every other night included illumination with incandescent light from sunset to sunrise, 2300 to 0030 hours, 0030 to 0200 hours, or 0200 to 0330 hours. Control plots were not exposed to artificial light.

The average number of days that reproductive development was delayed beyond the control was twice as great for the every-night treatments as for the every-other-night treatments. Illumination from sunset to sunrise delayed reproductive development significantly more than the treatments of night interruption for 1.5 hours. Night interruption near the end of the dark period (0200 to 0330 hours) delayed reproductive development more than the earlier interruptions.

The results did not support the hypothesis that light treatments every other night would delay reproductive development as much as every-night interruptions. The lighting regime needed to delay reproductive development will depend on the photoperiod requirements of the cultivars and duration of the delay that is desired.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0011-183X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2367  
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Author Edensor, T.; Falconer, E. doi  openurl
  Title Dans Le Noir? Eating in the dark: sensation and conviviality in a lightless place Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Cultural Geographies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 601-618  
  Keywords Society; Darkness  
  Abstract Drawing on ethnographic interviews with customers, this paper looks at the experience of dining at Dans le Noir?, a restaurant in London where eating is carried out in complete darkness. As an exemplary gastro-tourist site within the expanding leisure economy at which sensory alterity is sought, we argue that the transformation of the usual unreflexive habits of sensing while dining offer opportunities to encounter difference and reflect upon our culturally located ways of sensing the world. In focusing upon the altered experience of apprehending space, eating and socialising in the absence of light, we contend that this dining experience offers broader suggestions about how we might reconsider the qualities and potentialities of darkness, a condition which has been historically feared and reviled in the west.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 740  
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Author Mouland, J.W.; Martial, F.; Watson, A.; Lucas, R.J.; Brown, T.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cones Support Alignment to an Inconsistent World by Suppressing Mouse Circadian Responses to the Blue Colors Associated with Twilight Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 29 Issue 24 Pages 4260-4267.e4  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm; mouse models; cones  
  Abstract In humans, short-wavelength light evokes larger circadian responses than longer wavelengths. This reflects the fact that melanopsin, a key contributor to circadian assessments of light intensity, most efficiently captures photons around 480 nm and gives rise to the popular view that ‘‘blue’’ light exerts the strongest effects on the clock. However, in the natural world, there is often no direct correlation be- tween perceived color (as reported by the cone-based visual system) and melanopsin excitation. Accordingly, although the mammalian clock does receive cone-based chromatic signals, the influence of color on circadian responses to light remains unclear. Here, we define the nature and functional significance of chromatic influences on the mouse circadian sys- tem. Using polychromatic lighting and mice with altered cone spectral sensitivity (Opn1mwR), we generate conditions that differ in color (i.e., ratio of L- to S-cone opsin activation) while providing identical melanopsin and rod activation. When biased toward S-opsin activation (appearing ‘‘blue’’), these stimuli reliably produce weaker circadian behavioral responses than those favoring L-opsin (‘‘yellow’’). This influence of color (which is absent in animals lacking cone phototransduction; Cnga3/) aligns with natural changes in spectral composition over twilight, where decreasing solar angle is accompanied by a strong blue shift. Accordingly, we find that naturalistic color changes support circadian alignment when environmental conditions render diurnal variations in light intensity weak/ambiguous sources of timing information. Our data thus establish how color contributes to circadian entrainment in mammals and provide important new insight to inform the design of lighting environments that benefit health.  
  Address Centre for Biological Timing, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK; timothy.brown(at)manchester.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cell Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2785  
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