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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication (up) Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention  
  Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 487-498  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication (up) Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.  
  Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Petrželková, K. J.; Downs, N. C.; Zukal, J.; Racey, P. A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A comparison between emergence and return activity in pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication (up) Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords animals; fying mammals: animal behaviour  
  Abstract Bats may be vulnerable to predation during evening emergence and morning return to their roosts. Early emergence increases the risk of exposure to raptorial birds, but emerging late confers a risk of missing the dusk peak of aerial insects. Here, both emergence and return activity was studied in detail at the same roosts for the first time. We investigated six maternity colonies of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) in NE Scotland and recorded light levels and time of emergence and return of the bats with respect to sunset and sunrise on the same nights. Parameters of return activity generally occurred at lower light intensities than those of emergence. Therefore, the interval between dawn return and sunrise was generally longer than that between sunset and dusk emergence. Emergence and return were equal in duration. Bats clustered more on emergence in comparison with return during pregnancy and lactation, whereas during postlactation this trend was reversed.  
  Address  
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  Publisher BioOne Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1598  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Strobl, E. url  openurl
  Title The Impact of Typhoons on Economic Activity in the Philippines: Evidence from Nightlight Intensity Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) ADB Economics Working Paper Series Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 589 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract We quantify the economic impact of typhoons in the Philippines. To this end we construct a panel data set of local economic activity derived from nightlight intensity satellite images and a cell level measure of typhoon damage constructed from storm track data, a wind field model, and a stylized damage function. Our econometric results reveal that there is a statistically and potentially economically significant, albeit short- lived, impact of typhoon destruction on local economic activity. Constructing risk profiles from a 60-year historical set of storms suggests that (near) future losses in economic activity for frequent (5-year return period) and rare (50-year return period) events are likely

to range from between 1.0% and 2.5%.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2641  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Omar, N. S., & Ismal, A. doi  openurl
  Title Night Lights and Economic Performance in Egypt Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (up) Advances in Economics and Business Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 69-81  
  Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract This paper, to the best of my knowledge, is the first to estimate the association between Nighttime Lights (NTL) and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the national level, using sub-national GDP data for the 27 Egyptian governorates over FY08-FY13. The study finds that NTL has a positive and statistically significant

correlation with GDP at the sub-national and national levels. Hence, NTL can measure and predict GDP in Egypt, at the national and sub-national levels. These findings affirm most previous research that NTL could be a good proxy for GDP when official data are unavailable or time infrequent in developing countries.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2301  
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