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Author Ehrlich, D.; Schiavina, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Kemper, T.
Title Detecting spatial pattern of inequalities from remote sensing – Towards mapping of deprived communities and poverty Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication EUR 29465 EN Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages JRC113941
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Spatial inequalities across the globe are not easy to detect and satellite data have shown to be of use in this task. Earth Observation (EO) data combined with other information sources can provide complementary information to those derived from traditional methods. This research shows patterns of inequalities emerging by combining global night lights measured from Earth Observation, population density and built-up in 2015. The focus of the paper is to describe the spatial patterns that emerge by combing the three variables. This work focuses on processing EO data to derive information products, and in combining built-up- and population density with night-time lights emission. The built-up surface was derived entirely from remote sensing archives using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques. The built-up was combined with population census data to derive population density. Also the night-time lights emission data were available from EO satellite sensors. The three layers are subsequently combined as three colour compositions based on the three primary colours (i.e. red, green and blue) to display the “spatial human settlement pattern” maps. These GHSL nightlights provide insights in inequalities across the globe. Many patterns seem to be associated with countries income. Typically, high income countries are very well lit at night, low income countries are poorly lit at night. All larger cities of the world are lit at night, those in low-income countries are often less well lit than cites in high-income countries. There are also important differences in nightlights emission in conflict areas, or along borders of countries. This report provides a selected number of patterns that are described at the regional, national and local scale. However, in depth analysis would be required to assess more precisely that relation between wealth access to energy and countries GDP, for example. This work also addresses regional inequality in GHSL nightlights in Slovakia. The country was selected to address the deprivation of the Roma minority community. The work aims to relate the information from the GHSL nightlights with that collected from field survey and census information conducted at the national level. Socio-economic data available at subnational level was correlated with nightlight. The analysis shows that despite the potential of GHSL nightlights in identifying deprived areas, the measurement scale of satellite derived nightlights at 375 x 375 m to 750 x 750 m pixel size is too coarse to capture the inequalities of deprived communities that occur at finer scale. In addition, in the European context, the gradient of inequality is not strong enough to produce strong evidence. Although there is a specific pattern of GHSL nightlights in settlements with high Roma presence, this cannot be used to identify such areas among the others. This work is part of the exploratory data analysis conducted within the GHSL team. The exploratory analysis will be followed by more quantitative assessments that will be available in future work.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) European Union Place of Publication Luxembourg Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-92-79-97528-8 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2821
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Author Labuda, M.; Koch, R.; Nagyová, A.
Title “Dark Sky Parks” as measure to support nature tourism in large protection areas – case study in the Nature Park “Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide” Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung Abbreviated Journal
Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 380-388
Keywords Society; dark sky parks; tourism; astrotourism; economic impact; economics; economic benefit; Germany
Abstract Some of the key characteristics of environmentally compatible. tourism are the minimisation of negative impacts on the environment and the preservation of the ecological capacity. “Dark Sky Parks” are one of the important measures to support nature tourism in large protection areas. Using the example of the Nature Park “Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide” the paper introduces a concept of 'astrotourism': measurements of the brightness (magnitude) of the nocturnal sky, selection of suitable sites for astronomic observations, development of a lighting plan which mainly aims to define rules and guidelines for the outdoor lighting, and measures to protect the nocturnal sky and reduce the light pollution in the future Dark Sky Park. The region of the Nature Park Nossentiner/Schwinzer Heide is characterised by a minor light pollution, due to a low settlement density and its large, coherent forest areas. This fact contributes to the protection of nocturnal species and it can be used for the future tourism concept in the protection area. The presented concept to develop nature tourism shows a reaction on one of the fastest environmental changes: the decreasing intensity of natural darkness due to artificial light sources.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Eugen Ulmer KG Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0940-6808 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1341
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Author Rodrí­guez, A.; Garcí­­a, D.; Rodrí­guez, B.; Cardona, E.; Parpal, L.; Pons, P.
Title Artificial lights and seabirds: is light pollution a threat for the threatened Balearic petrels? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication The Wilson Journal of Ornithologynithology Abbreviated Journal J. of Ornith.
Volume 156 Issue 4 Pages 893-902
Keywords Animals; birds; shearwater; Balearic shearwater; Puffinus mauretanicus; Scopoli's shearwater; Calonectris diomedea; European storm-petrel; Hydrobates pelagicus; Balearic Islands; Mediterranean; light pollution; biology; ecology; conservation
Abstract Petrels are among the most threatened group of birds. On top of facing predation by introduced mammals and incidental bycatch, these seabirds have to deal with an emerging threat, light pollution, which is increasing globally. Fledglings are disoriented and attracted to artificial lights in their maiden night flights from their nests to the sea. Once grounded, they are exposed to multiple threats leading to high mortality. We report on numbers of three petrel species (Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, Scopoli's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, and European storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus) rescued on the Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea, in the period 1999-2013. We assessed the proportion of grounded fledglings in the population and colonies impact based on radiance levels measured from a nocturnal satellite image. We also calculated the radius of light pollution impact. At least 304 fledgling birds were found stranded due to attraction to artificial lights, fatally affecting 8.5 % of them. The proportion of grounded fledglings ranged between 0.13 and 0.56 % of the fledglings produced annually. The body mass of Balearic and Scopoli's shearwater fledglings decreased with rescue date. Light-induced mortality increased during the fledging period for Scopoli's shearwaters. Birds were rescued at a mean distance of 4833 m from the nearest colony, and between 30 and 47 % of colonies were exposed to light-polluted areas. Although impact seems to be low for all species, urban development and, consequently, the increase in light pollution in the proximity of the colonies should be taken into account to reduce as much as possible this emerging source of mortality.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, 41092, Seville, Spain; airamrguez@ebd.csic.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) English Place of Publication English Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2193-7206 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1185
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Author Pagden, M.; Ngahane, K.; Amin, M.S.R.
Title Changing the colour of night on urban streets – LED vs. part-night lighting system Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
Volume in press Issue Pages 100692
Keywords Energy; Planning; Economics; United Kingdom; LED; Lighting
Abstract Many cities in the United Kingdom are upgrading the streetlights to white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps for reducing the electricity costs and attaining the sustainable energy solutions. Installation of LED lamps on urban street requires higher installation costs and a long-term period to payback benefits of replacing outdated streetlights in terms of energy savings and costs. To achieve the short-term energy efficiency of urban street lighting, city councils sometimes adopt the part-night lighting system particularly in the residential areas. The Coventry City Council recently replaced 29,701 existing sodium lights with LED lamps. This paper performs the economic analyses to understand the feasibility of two street lighting systems: LED lamps and ‘part-night’ lightings on the Coventry streets during the twenty-year period assuming the return period of investment is twenty years. The projection of energy consumption and costs for LED lamps and part-night lighting systems shows that electricity can be saved by 44% and 21% comparing to current electricity usages, respectively. Considering the budgetary constraints of Coventry City Council, this paper concludes that the part-night lighting system may be beneficial in short-term period, but it is economically feasible to replace the existing lower efficiency lights with LED lamps.
Address Faculty of Engineering, Environment & Computing, Coventry University, Priory St, Coventry, West Midlands, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom; pagdenm(at)uni.coventry.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) English Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0038-0121 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2234
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Author Secondi, J.; Davranche, A.; Théry, M.; Mondy, N.; Lengagne, T.; Isaac, N.
Title Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume in press Issue Pages geb.13037
Keywords Ecology; biodiversity; Review
Abstract Aim

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted to fill this knowledge gap in order to contribute to the elaboration of a biogeographical framework for the study of ALAN at the global scale.

Location

Global.

Time period

Current and next decades.

Methods

We analysed the latitudinal variation in ALAN and focused on environmental factors that vary with latitude but that have been overlooked. We reviewed biological traits that exhibit latitudinal variation and depend on light and photoperiod and compiled information about the predicted changes in human demography and road networks across different world regions.

Results

Cloud cover amplifies ALAN far away from urbanized areas. Because of the higher frequency of overcast sky nights, exposure effects may be stronger both at high latitudes and across a large fraction of the intertropical zone, although at different times of the year. Intertropical biomes host the largest fraction of global biodiversity. Although currently they are not the most exposed to ALAN, their human populations are growing, and urbanized areas and road networks are expanding. Hence, ALAN could have strong ecological consequences, with cloud cover as an aggravating factor.

Perspectives

Knowledge gaps currently limit our ability to predict the effects of ALAN in different biomes. Therefore, it will be important to start investigating the consequences of this novel environmental factor across the globe, in order to develop a relevant theoretical framework.
Address
Corporate Author Wiley Thesis
Publisher (down) English Place of Publication English Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2758
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