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Author Chen, H.; Zhang, X.; Wu, R.; Cai, T.
Title Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve for city-level CO2 emissions: based on corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data in China Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume Issue Pages 121575
Keywords Remore Sensing; China; carbon emissions; CO2 emissions; night lights; NPP-VIIRS; VIIRS-DNB; VIIRS-DNB; Kuznets curve
Abstract With the increasing trend of global warming, the Chinese government faces tremendous pressure to reduce CO2 emissions. The purpose of this study is to accurately measure CO2 emissions at the city scale in China and examine the environmental Kuznets curve, thereby providing a reference for decision-making. Corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data were used to accurately estimate carbon dioxide emissions at the provincial and city scales in China. Then, based on the STRIPAT model, 291 cities in China were used to verify the environmental Kuznets curve. Our results show that on the provincial scale, the R2 between the estimated value and the statistical value of carbon dioxide reaches 0.85. Western cities in China emit more CO2, as do economically developed cities and industry- and mining-dominated cities. There are two CO2 emission hot spots in the north and one cold spot in the south. It was found that the environmental Kuznets curve on the city scale exists. This study has practical value in utilizing NPP-VIIRS data for the estimation of city CO2 emissions. The results also have academic value for determining factors that contribute to carbon dioxide emissions and can provide a reference for relevant decision makers. This study could be considered the first to simulate CO2 emissions at the provincial and city levels in China based on a NPP-VIIRS nighttime light model to explore the associated geographical distribution characteristics and potential influencing factors.
Address State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2917
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Author Barentine, J.C.; Kundracik, F.; Kocifaj, M.; Sanders, J.C.; Esquerdo, G.A.; Dalton, A.M.; Foott, B.; Grauer, A.; Tucker, S.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Recovering the city street lighting fraction from skyglow measurements in a large-scale municipal dimming experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 253 Issue Pages 107120
Keywords Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract Anthropogenic skyglow dominates views of the natural night sky in most urban settings, and the associated emission of artificial light at night (ALAN) into the environment of cities involves a number of known and suspected negative externalities. One approach to lowering consumption of ALAN in cities is dimming or extinguishing publicly owned outdoor lighting during overnight hours; however, there are few reports in the literature about the efficacy of these programs. Here we report the results of one of the largest municipal lighting dimming experiments to date, involving ~ 20,000 roadway luminaires owned and operated by the City of Tucson, Arizona, U.S. We analyzed both single-channel and spatially resolved ground-based measurements of broadband night sky radiance obtained during the tests, determining that the zenith sky brightness during the tests decreased by ()% near the city center and ()% at an adjacent suburban location on nights when the output of the street lighting system was dimmed from 90% of its full power draw to 30% after local midnight. Modeling these changes with a radiative transfer code yields results suggesting that street lights account for about (14 ± 1)% of light emissions resulting in skyglow seen over the city. A separate derivation from first principles implies that street lighting contributes only % of light seen at the zenith over Tucson. We discuss this inconsistency and suggest routes for future work.
Address 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719; john(at)darksky.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Enlish Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2989
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Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V.
Title Assessment of outdoor lighting installations and their impact on light pollution using unmanned aircraft systems – The concept of the drone-gonio-photometer Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 253 Issue Pages 107155
Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting
Abstract This paper presents the ongoing work of the lighting laboratory to develop a standardized method for the measurement of several types of lighting installations using unmanned aircraft systems. The technology of unmanned aircraft systems can incorporate multiple types of sensors and can be programmed to fly in predefined areas and routes in order to perform complex measurements with limited human intervention. This technology provides the freedom of measurements from several angular positions and altitudes in a fast, easy, accurate and repeatable way. The overall aim of this work is to assess the lighting installations, not only against the applicable lighting standards but also to investigate and reveal issues related to light pollution and obtrusive lighting. The latter are issues that in most cases are neglected due to the lack of standardized methods of calculation and measurement. Current assessment methods require illuminance or luminance measurements of horizontal and vertical surfaces generally from the ground. The proposed approach provides a holistic three-dimensional evaluation of the lighting installations beyond the common methods and geometries and opens the discussion for future update of the relevant standards on outdoor lighting. In the scope of this paper, several proof-of-concept cases are presented.
Address Lighting Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15780, Zografou, Athens, Greece; bouroussis(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2996
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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Haim, A.
Title Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 2714-2722
Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; *Environmental Pollution; Eye; *Health; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/standards; Melatonin/*antagonists & inhibitors; Sodium; Vision, Ocular/*physiology; Visual Perception
Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this “residual light pollution”, cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment and on visual perception of the Universe by humans. We present quantitative criteria to evaluate the lamps based on their spectral emissions and we suggest regulatory limits for future lighting.
Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Via Roma 13, I-36106 Thiene, Italy. falchi(at)lightpollution.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21745709 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3031
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Author Nadybal, S.M.; Collins, T.W.; Grineski, S.E.
Title Light pollution inequities in the continental United States: A distributive environmental justice analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res
Volume 189 Issue Pages 109959
Keywords Society; Environmental justice; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status; United States
Abstract Excessive exposure to ambient light at night is a well-documented hazard to human health, yet analysts have not examined it from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective. We conducted the first EJ study of exposure to light pollution by testing for socially disparate patterns across the continental United States (US). We first calculated population-weighted mean exposures to examine whether ambient light pollution in the US differed between racial/ethnic groups. We then used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEEs) that adjust for geographic clustering to examine whether light pollution was distributed inequitably based on racial/ethnic composition and socioeconomic status across US neighborhoods (census tracts). Finally, we conducted a stratified analysis of metropolitan core, suburban, and small city–rural tracts to determine whether patterns of inequity varied based on urban-rural context. We found evidence of disparities in exposures to light pollution based on racial/ethnic minority and low-to-mid socioeconomic statuses. Americans of Asian, Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity had population-weighted mean exposures to light pollution in their neighborhoods that were approximately two times that of White Americans. GEEs indicated that neighborhoods composed of higher proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or renter-occupants experienced greater exposures to ambient light at night. Stratified analyses indicated that those patterns of inequity did not substantially vary based on urban-rural context. Findings have implications for understanding environmental influences on health disparities, raise concerns about the potential for a multiple environmental jeopardy situation, and highlight the need for policy actions to address light pollution.
Address Department of Geography, University of Utah, 260 Central Campus Dr., Rm. 4625, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher (down) Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3059
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