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Author Cisse, Y.M.; Russart, K.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages e0231140
Keywords Animals
Abstract Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-alpha expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32302341 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2887
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Author Falchetta, G.; Pachauri, S.; Byers, E.; Danylo, O.; Parkinson, S.C.
Title Satellite Observations Reveal Inequalities in the Progress and Effectiveness of Recent Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication One Earth Abbreviated Journal One Earth
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Energy poverty is widely diffused and persistent in sub-Saharan Africa. Even in areas that formally have electricity access, power consumption and supply reliability are largely inadequate. Yet, most institutional statistics fail to capture these different dimensions and rely on rapidly outdated and unwieldy household surveys. In this study, we process high-resolution population distribution maps (including demographic and migration trends), satellite-measured nighttime light, and settlement information for sub-Saharan Africa. This allows us to derive multi-dimensional estimates of electricity access over space and time and compare them with a set of published records. Our results reveal wide inequalities in the pace and quality of electrification, which cannot be observed in existing statistics. We show that the pace of electrification must more than triple to fulfill SDG 7.1.1 and discuss why electrification policy could fall short if aimed solely at boosting electricity connections.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2590-3322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2886
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Author Shier, D.M.; Bird, A.K.; Wang, T.B.
Title Effects of artificial light at night on the foraging behavior of an endangered nocturnal mammal Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Modification of nighttime light levels by artificial illumination (artificial light at night; ALAN) is a rapidly increasing form of human disturbance that affects natural environments worldwide. Light in natural environments influences a variety of physiological and ecological processes directly and indirectly and, as a result, the effects of light pollution on species, communities and ecosystems are emerging as significant. Small prey species may be particularly susceptible to ALAN as it makes them more conspicuous and thus more vulnerable to predation by visually oriented predators. Understanding the effects of disturbance like ALAN is especially important for threatened or endangered species as impacts have the potential to impede recovery, but due to low population numbers inherent to at-risk species, disturbance is rarely studied. The endangered Stephens’ kangaroo rat (SKR), Dipodomys stephensi, is a nocturnal rodent threatened by habitat destruction from urban expansion. The degree to which ALAN impacts their recovery is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of ALAN on SKR foraging decisions across a gradient of light intensity for two types of ALAN, flood and bug lights (756 vs 300 lumen, respectfully) during full and new moon conditions. We found that ALAN decreased probability of resource patch depletion compared to controls. Moreover, lunar illumination, distance from the light source and light type interacted to alter SKR foraging. Under the new moon, SKR were consistently more likely to deplete patches under control conditions, but there was an increasing probability of patch depletion with distance from the source of artificial light. The full moon dampened SKR foraging activity and the effect of artificial lights. Our study underscores that ALAN reduces habitat suitability, and raises the possibility that ALAN may impede the recovery of at-risk nocturnal rodents.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2885
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Author Svechkina, A.; Trop, T.; Portnov, B.A.
Title How Much Lighting is Required to Feel Safe When Walking Through the Streets at Night? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 3133
Keywords Public Safety; Security
Abstract Public space lighting (PSL) is indispensable after the natural dark. However, little is known about how much PSL people actually need to feel sufficiently safe in different real-world urban settings. The present study attempts to answer this question by employing a novel real-time interactive approach, according to which, observers use a specially-designed mobile phone application to assess and report the perceived attributes of street lighting and the feeling of safety (FoS) it generates. To validate the proposed approach, a systematic survey was conducted in three cities in Israel—Tel Aviv-Yafo and Haifa, which lie on the Mediterranean coast, and Be’er Sheba, which lies inland. Additionally, instrumental PSL measurements were performed at the same locations. As the study reveals, the necessary level of illumination required by urban residents to feel safe differs by city and is significantly higher in Be’er Sheba, other factors held equal, in compare to Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This difference may be attributed to stronger daylight that the residents of the desert city of Be’er Sheba are accustomed to, and, therefore, may prefer stronger nighttime illumination. The difference could also be related to the relatively low socio-economic status and somewhat higher crime rates in the latter city. Findings also show a significant and positive association between FoS and instrumentally measured PSL levels, although this association exhibits diminishing returns. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to use an interactive location- and time-based mobile phone technology, which can potentially provide more accurate and reliable assessments, compared to traditional “pen and paper” survey techniques.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2884
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Author Eberenz, S.; Stocker, D.; Röösli, T.; Bresch, D.N.
Title Asset exposure data for global physical risk assessment Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Earth System Science Data Abbreviated Journal Earth Syst. Sci. Data
Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 817-833
Keywords Economics
Abstract One of the challenges in globally consistent assessments of physical climate risks is the fact thatasset exposure data are either unavailable or restricted to single countries or regions. We introduce a globalhigh-resolution asset exposure dataset responding to this challenge. The data are produced using “lit population”(LitPop), a globally consistent methodology to disaggregate asset value data proportional to a combination ofnightlight intensity and geographical population data. By combining nightlight and population data, unwantedartefacts such as blooming, saturation, and lack of detail are mitigated. Thus, the combination of both data typesimproves the spatial distribution of macroeconomic indicators. Due to the lack of reported subnational assetdata, the disaggregation methodology cannot be validated for asset values. Therefore, we compare disaggregatedgross domestic product (GDP) per subnational administrative region to reported gross regional product (GRP)values for evaluation. The comparison for 14 industrialized and newly industrialized countries shows that thedisaggregation skill for GDP using nightlights or population data alone is not as high as using a combinationof both data types. The advantages of LitPop are global consistency, scalability, openness, replicability, and lowentry threshold. The open-source LitPop methodology and the publicly available asset exposure data offer valuefor manifold use cases, including globally consistent economic disaster risk assessments and climate changeadaptation studies, especially for larger regions, yet at considerably high resolution. The code is published onGitHub as part of the open-source software CLIMADA (CLIMate ADAptation) and archived in the ETH DataArchive with the link https://doi.org/10.5905/ethz-1007-226 (Bresch et al., 2019b). The resulting asset exposuredataset for 224 countries is archived in the ETH Research Repository with the link https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000331316 (Eberenz et al., 2019).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1866-3516 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2883
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