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Author Xiao, Q.; Gee, G.; Jones, R.R.; Jia, P.; James, P.; Hale, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cross-sectional association between outdoor artificial light at night and sleep duration in middle-to-older aged adults: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 180 Issue Pages 108823  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Artificial light at night; Circadian disruption; Neighborhood; Sleep; Socioeconomic disadvantage  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artificial light at night (ALAN) can disrupt circadian rhythms and cause sleep disturbances. Several previous epidemiological studies have reported an association between higher levels of outdoor ALAN and shorter sleep duration. However, it remains unclear how this association may differ by individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status, and whether ALAN may also be associated with longer sleep duration. METHODS: We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between outdoor ALAN and self-reported sleep duration in 333,365 middle- to older-aged men and women in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Study participants reported baseline addresses, which were geocoded and linked with outdoor ALAN exposure measured by satellite imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the multinomial odds ratio (MOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of reporting very short (<5h), short (<7h) and long (>/=9h) sleep relative to reporting 7-8h of sleep across quintiles of LAN. We also conducted subgroup analyses by individual-level education and census tract-level poverty levels. RESULTS: We found that higher levels of ALAN were associated with both very short and short sleep. When compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of ALAN was associated with 16% and 25% increases in the likelihood of reporting short sleep in women (MORQ1 vs Q5, (95% CI), 1.16 (1.10, 1.22)) and men (1.25 (1.19, 1.31)), respectively. Moreover, we found that higher ALAN was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of reporting long sleep in men (0.79 (0.71, 0.89)). We also found that the associations between ALAN and short sleep were larger in neighborhoods with higher levels of poverty. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of short sleep may be higher among residents in areas with higher levels of outdoor LAN, and this association is likely stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Future studies should investigate the potential benefits of reducing light intensity in high ALAN areas in improve sleep health.  
  Address Program in Public Health, Department of Family, Population, and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31627155 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2702  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lu, L.; Weng, Q.; Xie, Y.; Guo, H.; Li, Q. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An assessment of global electric power consumption using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System nighttime light imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Energy Abbreviated Journal Energy  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Energy  
  Abstract Industrialization and urbanization have led to a remarkable increase of electric power consumption (EPC) during the past decades. To assess the changing patterns of EPC at the global scale, this study utilized nighttime lights in conjunction with population and built-up datasets to map EPC at 1 km resolution. Firstly, the inter-calibrated nighttime light data were enhanced using the V4.0 Gridded Population Density data and the Global Human Settlement Layer. Secondly, linear models were calibrated to relate EPC to the enhanced nighttime light data; these models were then employed to estimate per-pixel EPC in 2000 and 2013. Finally, the spatiotemporal patterns of EPC between the periods were analyzed at the country, continental, and global scales. The evaluation of the EPC estimation shows a reasonable accuracy at the provincial scale with R2 of 0.8429. Over 30% of the human settlements in Asia, Europe, and North America showed apparent EPC growth. At the national scale, moderate and high EPC growth was observed in 45% of the built-up areas in East Asia. The spatial clustering patterns revealed that EPC decreased in Russia and the Western Europe. This study provides fresh insight into the spatial pattern and variations of global electric power consumption.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-5442 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2701  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Straka, T.M.; Greif, S.; Schultz, S.; Goerlitz, H.R.; Voigt, C.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of cave illumination on bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract Artificial light at night has large impacts on nocturnal wildlife such as bats, yet its effect varies with wavelength of light, context, and across species involved. Here, we studied in two experiments how wild bats of cave-roosting species (Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. euryale, Myotis capaccinii and Miniopterus schreibersii) respond to LED lights of different colours. In dual choice experiments, we measured the acoustic activity of bats in response to neutral-white, red or amber LED at a cave entrance and in a flight room – mimicking a cave interior. In the flight room, M. capaccinii and M. schreibersii preferred red to white light, but showed no preference for red over amber, or amber over white light. In the cave entrance experiment, all light colours reduced the activity of all emerging species, yet red LED had the least negative effect. Rhinolophus species reacted most strongly, matching their refusal to fly at all under any light treatment in the flight room. We conclude that the placement and light colour of LED light should be considered carefully in lighting concepts for caves both in the interior and at the entrance. In a cave interior, red LED light could be chosen – if needed at all – for careful temporary illumination of areas, yet areas important for bats should be avoided based on the precautionary principle. At cave entrances, the high sensitivity of most bat species, particularly of Rhinolophus spp., towards light sources almost irrespective of colour, calls for utmost caution when illuminating cave entrances.  
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  ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2700  
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Author Jechow, A.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Snowglow—The Amplification of Skyglow by Snow and Clouds can Exceed Full Moon Illuminance in Suburban Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging  
  Volume 5 Issue 8 Pages 69  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Artificial skyglow, the fraction of artificial light at night that is emitted upwards from Earth and subsequently scattered back within the atmosphere, depends on atmospheric conditions but also on the ground albedo. One effect that has not gained much attention so far is the amplification of skyglow by snow, particularly in combination with clouds. Snow, however, has a very high albedo and can become important when the direct upward emission is reduced when using shielded luminaires. In this work, first results of skyglow amplification by fresh snow and clouds measured with all-sky photometry in a suburban area are presented. Amplification factors for the zenith luminance of 188 for snow and clouds in combination and 33 for snow alone were found at this site. The maximum zenith luminance of nearly 250 mcd/m2 measured with snow and clouds is a factor of 1000 higher than the commonly used clear sky reference of 0.25 mcd/m2. Compared with our darkest zenith luminance of 0.07 mcd/m2 measured for overcast conditions in a very remote area, this leads to an overall amplification factor of ca. 3500. Horizontal illuminance measurements show values of up to 0.79 lx, exceeding maximum possible full-moon illuminance levels by more than a factor of two. Additional measurements near the Arctic Circle for clear and overcast conditions are presented and strategies for further studies are discussed. We propose the term “snowglow” to describe the amplification of skyglow by snow with and without clouds.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2699  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Craggs, J.; Guest, J.R.; Davis, M.; Simmons, J.; Dashti, E.; Sweet, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Inducing broadcast coral spawning ex situ: Closed system mesocosm design and husbandry protocol Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 7 Issue 24 Pages 11066-11078  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals; *Acropora; *gametogenic cycle ex situ; *insolation; *lunar cycle; *photoperiod  
  Abstract For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Coupled with appropriate coral husbandry, these mesocosms were successful in inducing, for the first time, broadcast coral spawning in a fully closed artificial ex situ environment. Four Acropora species (A. hyacinthus, A. tenuis, A. millepora, and A. microclados) from two geographical locations, kept for over 1 year, completed full gametogenic cycles ex situ. The percentage of colonies developing oocytes varied from ~29% for A. hyacinthus to 100% for A. millepora and A. microclados. Within the Singapore mesocosm, A. hyacinthus exhibited the closest synchronization to wild spawning, with all four gravid colonies releasing gametes in the same lunar month as wild predicted dates. Spawning within the GBR mesocosm commenced at the predicted wild spawn date but extended over a period of 3 months. Gamete release in relation to the time postsunset for A. hyacinthus, A. millepora, and A. tenuis was consistent with time windows previously described in the wild. Spawn date in relation to full moon, however, was delayed in all species, possibly as a result of external light pollution. The system described here could broaden the number of institutions on a global scale, that can access material for broadcast coral spawning research, providing opportunities for institutions distant from coral reefs to produce large numbers of coral larvae and juveniles for research purposes and reef restoration efforts.  
  Address Aquatic Research Facility Environmental Sustainability Research Centre College of Life and Natural Sciences University of Derby Derby UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29299282; PMCID:PMC5743687 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2698  
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