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Author Hamacher, D.W.; De Napoli, K.; Mott, B. url  openurl
  Title Whitening the Sky: light pollution as a form of cultural genocide Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Dark Sky Studies Abbreviated Journal J of Dark Sky Studies  
  Volume 1 Issue in press Pages  
  Keywords Society; Blue-rich light sources; indigenous knowledge; aboriginal australia; torres strait islanders; decolonizing methodologies  
  Abstract Light pollution is actively destroying our ability to see the stars and disconnecting people from their deep-time connection to the sky, acting as a form of ongoing cultural and ecological genocide for Indigenous people around the world. Many traditional knowledge systems are based on the stars and peoples' ablity to observe and interpret them for a range of practical, social, and scientific purposes is critical. Efforts to reduce, minimise, or eliminate light pollution are being achieved with varying degrees of success, but the increased use of blue-light emitting LEDs as a cost-effective solution is worsening problems related to human health, wildlife, and astronomical heritage for the benefit of capitalistic economic growth. We provide a brief overview illustrating some of the important connections that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people maintain with the stars, as well as the worsening damage growing light pollution is causing to this ancient knowledge. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to solving the issues of growing light pollution, using a foundation based on Indigenous philosophies and decolonising methodologies.  
  Address ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D), School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 30130, Australia; duane.hamacher@unimelb.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher University of Utah Place of Publication USA Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2780  
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Author Bielli, A.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Doherty, P.D.; Godley, B.J.; Ortiz, C.; Pasara, A.; Wang, J.H.; Mangel, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An illuminating idea to reduce bycatch in the Peruvian small-scale gillnet fishery Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 108277  
  Keywords Animals; oceans; bycatch; artificial illumination; bycatch reduction technologies  
  Abstract Found in the coastal waters of all continents, gillnets are the largest component of small-scale fisheries for many countries. Numerous studies show that these fisheries often have high bycatch rates of threatened marine species such as sea turtles, small cetaceans and seabirds, resulting in possible population declines of these non-target groups. However, few solutions to reduce gillnet bycatch have been developed. Recent bycatch reduction technologies (BRTs) use sensory cues to alert non-target species to the presence of fishing gear. In this study we deployed light emitting diodes (LEDs) – a visual cue – on the floatlines of paired gillnets (control vs illuminated net) during 864 fishing sets on small-scale vessels departing from three Peruvian ports between 2015 and 2018. Bycatch probability per set for sea turtles, cetaceans and seabirds as well as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of target species were analysed for illuminated and control nets using a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM). For illuminated nets, bycatch probability per set was reduced by up to 74.4 % for sea turtles and 70.8 % for small cetaceans in comparison to non-illuminated, control nets. For seabirds, nominal BPUEs decreased by 84.0 % in the presence of LEDs. Target species CPUE was not negatively affected by the presence of LEDs. This study highlights the efficacy of net illumination as a multi-taxa BRT for small-scale gillnet fisheries in Peru. These results are promising given the global ubiquity of small-scale net fisheries, the relatively low cost of LEDs and the current lack of alternate solutions to bycatch.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK; bielli.alessandra(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2779  
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Author Syposz, M.; Gonçalves, F.; Carty, M.; Hoppitt, W.; Manco, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors influencing Manx Shearwater grounding on the west coast of Scotland Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal Ibis  
  Volume 160 Issue 4 Pages 846-854  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Grounding of thousands of newly fledged petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae) in built‐up areas due to artificial light is a global problem. Due to their anatomy these grounded birds find it difficult to take off from built‐up areas and many fall victim to predation, cars, dehydration or starvation. This research investigated a combination of several factors that may influence the number of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus groundings in a coastal village of Scotland located close to a nesting site for this species. A model was developed that used meteorological variables and moon cycle to predict the daily quantity of birds that were recovered on the ground. The model, explaining 46.32% of the variance of the data, revealed how new moon and strong onshore winds influence grounding. To a lesser extent, visibility conditions can also have an effect on grounding probabilities. The analysis presented in this study can improve rescue campaigns of not only Manx Shearwaters but also other species attracted to the light pollution by predicting conditions leading to an increase in the number of groundings. It could also inform local authorities when artificial light intensity needs to be reduced.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0019-1019 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2778  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pu, G.; Zeng, D.; Mo, L.; Liao, J.; Chen, X.; Qiu, S.; Lv, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night alter the impact of arsenic on microbial decomposers and leaf litter decomposition in streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Abbreviated Journal Ecotoxicol Environ Saf  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 110014  
  Keywords Ecology; Microbes; Fungal communities and biodiversity; Illumina sequencing; Light pollution; Litter decomposition; Microbiological oxidation  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN, also known as light pollution) has been proved to be a contributor to environmental change and a biodiversity threat worldwide, yet little is known about its potential interaction with different metal pollutants, such as arsenic (As), one of the largest threats to aquatic ecosystems. To narrow this gap, an indoor microcosm study was performed using an ALAN simulation device to examine whether ALAN exposure altered the impact of arsenic on plant litter decomposition and its associated fungi. Results revealed that microbial decomposers involved in the conversion of As(III) to As(V), and ALAN exposure enhanced this effect; ALAN or arsenic only exposure altered fungal community composition and the correlations between fungi species, as well as stimulated or inhibited litter decomposition, respectively. The negative effects of arsenic on the decomposition of Pterocarya stenoptera leaf litter was alleviated by ALAN resulting in the enhanced photodegradation of leaf litter lignin and microbiological oxidation of As(III) to As(V), the increased microbial biomass and CBH activity, as well as the enhanced correlations between CBH and litter decomposition rate. Overall, results expand our understanding of ALAN on environment and highlight the contribution of ALAN to the toxicity of arsenic in aquatic ecosystems.  
  Address School of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, 261053, China. Electronic address: njandgl@163.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0147-6513 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31810590 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2777  
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Author Kosicki, J.Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic activity expressed as ‘artificial light at night’ improves predictive density distribution in bird populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Ecological Complexity Abbreviated Journal Ecological Complexity  
  Volume 41 Issue Pages 100809  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is one of the most important anthropogenic environmental components that affects biodiversity worldwide. Despite extensive knowledge on ALAN, being a measure of human activity that directly impacts numerous aspects of animal behaviour, such as orientation and distribution, little is known about its effects on density distribution on a large spatial scale. That is why we decided to explore by means of the Species Distribution Modelling approach (SDM) how ALAN as one of 33 predictors determines farmland and forest bird species densities. In order to safeguard study results from any inconsistency caused by the chosen method, we used two approaches, i.e. the Generalised Additive Model (GAM) and the Random Forest (RF). Within each approach, we developed two models for two bird species, the Black woodpecker and the European stonechat: the first with ALAN, and the second without ALAN as an additional predictor. Having used out-of-bag procedures in the RF approach, information-theoretic criteria for the GAM, and evaluation models based on an independent dataset, we demonstrated that models with ALAN had higher predictive density power than models without it. The Black woodpecker definitely and linearly avoids anthropogenic activity, defined by the level of artificial light, while the European stonechat tolerates human activity to some degree, especially in farmland habitats. What is more, a heuristic analysis of predictive maps based on models without ALAN shows that both species reach high densities in regions where they are deemed rare. Hence, the study proves that urbanisation processes, which can be reflected by ALAN, are among key predictors necessary for developing Species Density Distribution Models for both farmland and forest bird species.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476945X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2776  
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