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Author Malek, I.; Haim, A.; Izhaki, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin mends adverse temporal effects of bright light at night partially independent of its effect on stress responses in captive birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 37 Issue 2 Pages 189-208  
  Keywords Animals; *Daily rhythms; *deep brain photoreceptors; *digestive efficiency; *light at night; *stress; Australian budgerigars; Melopsittacus undulatus  
  Abstract Ecological artificial light at night (ALAN) has been increasingly associated with negative effects on the behavior and ecology of wild birds. However, the impacts of short-term bright ALAN on the temporal biology of companion animals and the underlying mediating mechanism are unknown. We evaluated impacts of 1X60-min/middle night ALAN (200 lux, lambdaDominant = 460 nm) nightly with or without melatonin administration on growth performance, reproductive capacity, food and water intake, and stress responses in Australian budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) under captivity. 36 birds were housed in pairs under natural photoperiod and were equally divided into three groups: control, natural conditions; ALAN, control + ALAN; and melatonin, ALAN + melatonin in the drinking water during the dark period. Birds were regularly monitored for body mass, egg production, and hatchability over four months. Food intake, water consumption, and daily rhythm of fecal corticosterone were also evaluated. ALAN increased mass gain, food intake, water consumption, and drastically decreased reproductive capacity, whereas stress responses were markedly augmented. Melatonin restored food and water intake to control levels but partly reversed mass gain. Melatonin failed to ameliorate the impaired reproductive capacity despite reducing the stress responses to basal levels. These results suggest that the ALAN-induced negative impacts cannot be attributed solely to direct effects of melatonin suppression or/and exacerbated stress responses and the involvement of other photoperiodic pathway components warrant further studies. Finally, the results of our study may be of importance for improving the housing conditions of companion animals at least as concern bright ALAN exposures.  
  Address Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31809592 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3383  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Colman, L.P.; Lara, P.H.; Bennie, J.; Broderick, A.C.; de Freitas, J.R.; Marcondes, A.; Witt, M.J.; Godley, B.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing coastal artificial light and potential exposure of wildlife at a national scale: the case of marine turtles in Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biodiversity and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biodivers Conserv  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 1135-1152  
  Keywords Animals; Artificial light; Coastal development; Remote sensing; Loggerhead turtle; Hawksbill turtle; Olive ridley turtle; Leatherback turtle; marine turtles; Dermochelys coriacea; Lepidochelys olivacea; Eretmochelys imbricata; Caretta caretta  
  Abstract Coastal areas provide critical nesting habitat for marine turtles. Understanding how artificial light might impact populations is key to guide management strategies. Here we assess the extent to which nesting populations of four marine turtle species—leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and two subpopulations of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles—are exposed to light pollution across 604 km of the Brazilian coast. We used yearly night-time satellite images from two 5-year periods (1992–1996 and 2008–2012) from the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Programme (DMSP) to determine the proportion of nesting areas that are exposed to detectable levels of artificial light and identify how this has changed over time. Over the monitored time-frame, 63.7% of the nesting beaches experienced an increase in night light levels. Based on nest densities, we identified 54 reproductive hotspots: 62.9% were located in areas potentially exposed to light pollution. Light levels appeared to have a significant effect on nest densities of hawksbills and the northern loggerhead turtle stock, however high nest densities were also seen in lit areas. The status of all species/subpopulations has improved across the time period despite increased light levels. These findings suggest that (1) nest site selection is likely primarily determined by variables other than light and (2) conservation strategies in Brazil appear to have been successful in contributing to reducing impacts on nesting beaches. There is, however, the possibility that light also affects hatchlings in coastal waters, and impacts on population recruitment may take longer to fully manifest in nesting numbers. Recommendations are made to further this work to provide deeper insights into the impacts of anthropogenic light on marine turtles.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, TR10 9EZ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-3115 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3382  
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Author Baeza Moyano, D.; San Juan Fernández, M.; González Lezcano, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Towards a Sustainable Indoor Lighting Design: Effects of Artificial Light on the Emotional State of Adolescents in the Classroom Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 4263  
  Keywords Human Health; *Conservation of Natural Resources; visual comfort; artificial lighting; indoor lighting design; chronodisruption; circadian rhythms; daylighting; sustainable lighting design; LED luminaires; indoor environment quality; classroom lighting  
  Abstract In recent years, articles have been published on the non-visual effects of light, specifically the light emitted by the new luminaires with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and by the screens of televisions, computer equipment, and mobile phones. Professionals from the world of optometry have raised the possibility that the blue part of the visible light from sources that emit artificial light could have pernicious effects on the retina. The aim of this work is to analyze the articles published on this subject, and to use existing information to elucidate the spectral composition and irradiance of new LED luminaires for use in the home and in public spaces such as educational centers, as well as considering the consequences of the light emitted by laptops for teenagers. The results of this research show that the amount of blue light emitted by electronic equipment is lower than that emitted by modern luminaires and thousands of times less than solar irradiance. On the other hand, the latest research warns that these small amounts of light received at night can have pernicious non-visual effects on adolescents. The creation of new LED luminaires for interior lighting, including in educational centers, where the intensity of blue light can be increased without any specific legislation for its control, makes regulatory developments imperative due to the possible repercussions on adolescents with unknown and unpredictable consequences.  
  Address Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Campus Montepríncipe, Boadilla del Monte, 28925 Madrid, Spain; baezams ( at ) ceu.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3381  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Moaraf, S.; Heiblum, R.; Vistoropsky, Y.; Okuliarova, M.; Zeman, M.; Barnea, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial Light at Night Increases Recruitment of New Neurons and Differentially Affects Various Brain Regions in Female Zebra Finches Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal Int J Mol Sci  
  Volume 21 Issue 17 Pages  
  Keywords Medial striatum (MSt); Nidopallium caudale (NC); artificial light at night (ALAN); birds; brain plasticity; hippocampus (HC); melatonin; neuronal densities; new neuronal recruitment; zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)  
  Abstract Despite growing evidence that demonstrate adverse effects of artificial light at night (ALAN) on many species, relatively little is known regarding its effects on brain plasticity in birds. We recently showed that although ALAN increases cell proliferation in brains of birds, neuronal densities in two brain regions decreased, indicating neuronal death, which might be due to mortality of newly produced neurons or of existing ones. Therefore, in the present study we studied the effect of long-term ALAN on the recruitment of newborn neurons into their target regions in the brain. Accordingly, we exposed zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to 5 lux ALAN, and analysed new neuronal recruitment and total neuronal densities in several brain regions. We found that ALAN increased neuronal recruitment, possibly as a compensatory response to ALAN-induced neuronal death, and/or due to increased nocturnal locomotor activity caused by sleep disruption. Moreover, ALAN also had a differential temporal effect on neuronal densities, because hippocampus was more sensitive to ALAN and its neuronal densities were more affected than in other brain regions. Nocturnal melatonin levels under ALAN were significantly lower compared to controls, indicating that very low ALAN intensities suppress melatonin not only in nocturnal, but also in diurnal species.  
  Address Department of Natural and Life Sciences, The Open University of Israel, Ra'anana 43710, Israel; stanmoaraf ( at ) mail.tau.ac.il  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32858878; PMCID:PMC7503983 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3380  
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Author Yang, Y.; Liu, Q.; Wang, T.; Pan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Wavelength-specific artificial light disrupts molecular clock in avian species: A power-calibrated statistical approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume 265 Issue Pt B Pages 114206  
  Keywords Animals; *CLOCK Proteins; Chickens; Circadian Rhythm; Light; *Melatonin; Reproducibility of Results; Avian species; Clock genes; Light pollution; Melatonin; Spectral sensitivity  
  Abstract Nighttime lighting is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental stress on plants and animals. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may disrupt the circadian rhythm of organisms. However, the sample size of relevant studies, e.g. disruption of the molecular circadian clock by light pollution, was small (<10), which led to low statistical power and difficulties in replicating prior results. Here, we developed a power-calibrated statistical approach to overcome these weaknesses. The results showed that the effect size of 2.48 in clock genes expression induced by artificial light would ensure the reproducibility of the results as high as 80%. Long-wavelength light (560-660nm) entrained expressions of the positive core clock genes (e.g. cClock) and negative core clock genes (e.g. cCry1, cPer2) in robust circadian rhythmicity, whereas those clock genes were arrhythmic in short-wavelength light (380-480nm). Further, we found artificial light could entrain the transcriptional-translational feedback loop of the molecular clock in a wavelength-dependent manner. The expression of the positive core clock genes (cBmal1, cBmal2 and cClock), cAanat gene and melatonin were the highest in short-wavelength light and lowest in long-wavelength light. For the negative regulators of the molecular clock (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3), the expression of which was the highest in long-wavelength light and lowest in short-wavelength light. Our statistical approach opens new opportunities to understand and strengthen conclusions, comparing with the studies with small sample sizes. We also provide comprehensive insight into the effect of wavelength-specific artificial light on the circadian rhythm of the molecular clock in avian species. Especially, the global lighting is shifting from “yellow” sodium lamps, which is more like the long-wavelength light, toward short-wavelength light (blue light)-enriched “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs).  
  Address Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. panhouse ( at ) zju.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32599326 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 3379  
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