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Author Sung, C. Y., & Kim, Y.-J.
Title Analysis of the Status of Light Pollution and its Potential Effect on Ecosystem of the Deogyusan National Park Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 63-71
Keywords Conservation; Ecology; Remote Sensing
Abstract This study characterized the spatial and seasonal patterns of light pollution in the Deogyusan National Park and examined the potential effects of light pollution on ecosystems in the park using light intensities derived from VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) DNB (Day and Night Band) nightlight images collected in January and August 2018. Results showed that the Muju Deogyusan resort had the greatest light intensity than other sources of light pollution in the park, and light intensity of the resort was much higher in January than in August, suggesting that artificial lights in ski slopes and facilities were the major source of light pollution in the park. An analysis of an urban-natural light pollution gradient along a neighboring urban area through the inside of the park indicated that light radiated from a light pollution source permeated for up to 1km into the adjacent area and contaminated the edge area of the park. Of the legally protected species whose distributions were reported in literature, four mammals (Martes flavigula, Mustela nivalis, Prionailurus bengalensis, Pteromys volans aluco), two birds (Falco subbuteo, Falco tinnunculus), and nine amphibians and reptiles (Onychodactylus koreanus, Hynobius leechii, Karsenia koreana, Rana dybowskii, Rana huanrenensis, Elaphe dione, Rhabdophis tigrinus, Gloydius ussuriensis, Gloydius saxatilis) inhabited light-polluted areas. Of those species inhabiting light-polluted areas, nocturnal species, such as Prionailurus bengalensis and Pteromys volans aluco, in particular, were vulnerable to light pollution. These results implied that protecting ecosystems from light pollution in national parks requires managing nighttime light in the parks and surrounding areas and making a plan to manage nighttime light pollution by taking into account ecological characteristics of wild animals in the parks.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2948
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Author Libertun de Duren, N, & Osorio, R.
Title The Effect of Public Expenditure on the Housing Deficit in Peru at the Municipal Level Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Housing Policy Debate Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-23
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract What impact does public expenditure on housing have on the deficit in a municipality? This article answers this question for Peru for the period 2001–2013. Municipalities with high expenditure levels saw a reduction in the number of households lacking access to water, sanitation, and electricity. There was no significant change in cohabitation, overcrowding, or lack of documents of ownership. The analysis was based on the empirical association between mineral exploitation and housing deficit at the municipal level. Municipalities that benefited from the mineral boom after 2007 saw housing expenditures increase dramatically, which reduced the housing deficit associated with poor materials to 18% from 33% (the national average). In addition, the housing deficit related to lack of water, sanitation, and electricity decreased from 26% to 22%.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2947
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Author Zhang, A., Li, W., Wu, J., Lin, J., Chu, J., & Xia, C.
Title How can the urban landscape affect urban vitality at the street block level? A case study of 15 metropolises in China Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Urban vitality, as a metric, measures the attractiveness and competitiveness of a city and is a driver of development. As the physical and social space of human activities, the urban landscape has close connections with urban vitality according to classical theories. However, limited quantitative criteria for the urban landscape and gaps between macro urban planning and micro design create difficulties when constructing a vibrant city. In this study, we quantitatively examined the relationship between the urban landscape and urban vitality at the street block level using geospatial open data to discover where, how, and to what extent we could improve urban vitality, taking 15 Chinese metropolises as a case study. Results indicate that, among the three aspects of the urban landscape considered, the city plan pattern has the highest effect on stimulating vitality, followed by the land use and the patterns of building form. Specifically, the three-dimensional form of buildings has a greater effect than a two-dimensional form. In addition, convenient transportation, a compact block form, diverse buildings, mixed land use, and high buildings are the main characteristics of vibrant blocks. The results also show that the effects of the urban landscape have spatial variations and obvious diurnal discrepancies. Furthermore, over 20 and 33% of the blocks in these cities are identified as low-vitality blocks during the day and night, respectively, and are then categorized into six different types. The identification of the common characteristics of these low-vitality blocks can be taken as references for designing a vibrant urbanity.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2946
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Author Dick, R.
Title The Biological Basis for the Canadian Guideline for Outdoor Lighting 1. General Scotobiology Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Abbreviated Journal
Volume 114 Issue 3 Pages 122-126
Keywords Biology; Ecology
Abstract The subject of limiting outdoor lighting seems straightforward- it saves electricity and reduces glare, but society has a predilection for activity at night that requires more than natural light. This extends beyond urban areas. “Cottage country” is well lit along the shoreline, and even campgrounds filled with amateur astronomers have lots of unshielded lights. Although these tend to be red, they still undermine our night vision (Dick, 2016) and change the nocturnal ambience. The main problem of whether outdoor lighting is good or bad depends on who is judge. Is there a less equivocal way to assess or define acceptable outdoor lighting, especially in rural areas? Must rural lighting follow “Best Practices” for cities? This is the first in a series of papers that will discuss the science behind the ecological impacts of artificial (anthropogenic) light at night. It will propose rational solutions to reduce these impacts and will define the characteristics of artificial light that minimize these disruptions that we call lighting with “low-ecological impact.” Although taking an ecological approach to outdoor lighting is unusual, we have observed that if the nocturnal environment is preserved for wildlife, it is usually sufficient for astronomy. Although it is understood that observatories may require a curfew during the three weeks centred on the new Moon. This first paper will set the stage for this somewhat unorthodox exploration into light.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2945
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Author Deal, S.
Title Striking a Balance Between Starry Skies and Urban Illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Water Log Abbreviated Journal
Volume 40 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords Planning; Ecology; Skyglow; Commentary
Abstract For countless centuries, people have looked up at the night sky in awe and wonder. However, the starry night skies have been increasingly subsumed by ambient light from cities. Many urban areas across the world are over illuminated, leaving city dwellers unable to take in the natural day-night pattern of the skies. This disruption is not merely a setback for stargazers; excessive lighting from city streets can have an adverse impact on wildlife and human welfare. Sea turtle hatchlings, which instinctively crawl towards the night sky to reach the safety of the ocean, may be enticed by the stronger

glow of nearby streetlights. Artificial lights also steer migratory bird species off course and interfere with their ability to detect ideal conditions for nesting.

1 Overly bright lighting in residential areas can disrupt human sleeping

habits as well. These impacts associated with excess lighting

show that cities have an important role to play in regulating

lighting sources
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial (down) 2944
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