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Author Garratt, M.J.; Jenkins, S.R.; Davies, T.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping the consequences of artificial light at night for intertidal ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecology; Lighting  
  Abstract Widespread coastal urbanization has resulted in artificial light pollution encroaching into intertidal habitats, which are highly valued by society for ecosystem services including coastal protection, climate regulation and recreation. While the impacts of artificial light at night in terrestrial and riparian ecosystems are increasingly well documented, those on organisms that reside in coastal intertidal habitats are less well explored. The distribution of artificial light at night from seaside promenade lighting was mapped across a sandy shore, and its consequences for macroinvertebrate community structure quantified accounting for other collinear environmental variables known to shape biodiversity in intertidal ecosystems (shore height, wave exposure and organic matter content). Macroinvertebrate community composition significantly changed along artificial light gradients. Greater numbers of species and total community biomass were observed with increasing illumination, a relationship that was more pronounced (increased effects size) with increasing organic matter availability. Individual taxa exhibited different relationships with artificial light illuminance; the abundances of 27% of non-rare taxa [including amphipods (Amphipoda), catworms (Nephtys spp.), and sand mason worms (Lanice conchilega)] decreased with increasing illumination, while 20% [including tellins (Tellinidae spp.), lugworms (Arenicola marina) and ragworms (Nereididae spp.)] increased. Possible causes of these relationships are discussed, including direct effects of artificial light on macroinvertebrate behaviour and indirect effects via trophic interactions. With increasing light pollution in coastal zones around the world, larger scale changes in intertidal ecosystems could be occurring.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2590  
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Author Bowden, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An Analysis of Factors Affecting Catches of Insects in Light-Traps Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Bulletin of Entomological Research Abbreviated Journal Bull. Entomol. Res.  
  Volume 72 Issue 4 Pages 535-556  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Analysis of published data on catches of insects in light-traps with a variety of light sources and of different designs showed that all conformed to the previously proposed model describing the functioning of a light-trap: catch = constant × where W = trap illumination and I = background illumination. Light-trap catches in differing cloud conditions and in open and woodland situations also varied as predicted by the model. A table of correction factors for different amounts of cloud cover is provided. The results are discussed in relation to use of light-traps and interpretation of light-trap data.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-4853 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2589  
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Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
 
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  ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2588  
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Author Li, X.; Duarte, F.; Ratti, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analyzing the obstruction effects of obstacles on light pollution caused by street lighting system in Cambridge, Massachusetts Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science Abbreviated Journal Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; Lighting  
  Abstract Artificial light has transformed urban life, enhancing visibility, aesthetics, and increasing safety in public areas. However, too much unwanted artificial light leads to light pollution, which has a negative effect on public health and urban ecosystems, as well as on the aesthetic and cultural meanings of the night sky. Some of the factors interfering with the estimation of light pollution in cities are urban features, such as the presence of trees, road dimensions, and the physical characteristics of buildings. In this study, we proposed a simplified model for unwanted upward light coming from street luminaires based on a building height model and the publicly accessible Google Street View images. We simulated and analyzed the obstruction effects of different street features on the light pollution caused by the street lighting system in Cambridge, Massachusetts. By providing quantitative information about the connections between the streetscape features and the amount of unwanted upward artificial light, this study provides reference values to inform policies aimed at curbing light pollution.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2399-8083 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2587  
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Author Maggio, R.; Vaglini, F.; Rossi, M.; Fasciani, I.; Pietrantoni, I.; Marampon, F.; Corsini, G.U.; Scarselli, M.; Millan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Parkinson's disease and light: The bright and the Dark sides Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Brain Research Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Bull  
  Volume 150 Issue Pages 290-296  
  Keywords Humah Health; Light pollution; Near-infrared light; Parkinson's disease  
  Abstract Light exerts a major influence on human behaviour and health, mainly owing to the importance of sight in our lives, but also due to its entrainment of daily rhythms via the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master pacemaker. Light may also be a useful clinical medium, as in lumino-therapy for the improvement of depressed mood. Further, as discussed herein, local application of near infrared light to the substantia nigra exerts neuroprotective properties in models of Parkinson's disease. However, light also has a darker side. In general, as regards the growing problem to human health – and the natural world – of excess exposure to artificial light: both urban glow and ubiquitous screens. Moreover, over-exposure to light, in particular fluorescent light, disrupts circadian rhythms and sleep, and may damage dopaminergic neurons. Is it, then, a neglected risk factor for Parkinson's disease? The present article discusses epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting beneficial and potentially deleterious impact of light on dopaminergic neurons and highlights the mechanisms whereby light might influence neuronal tissue.  
  Address Centre for Innovation in Neuropsychiatry, Institut de Recherches Servier, 125, Chemin de Ronde, 78290, Croissy sur Seine, France. Electronic address: mark.millan@servier.com  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0361-9230 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31226407 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2586  
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