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Author Gibson J.; Olivia S.; Boe-Gibson G. url  openurl
  Title A Test of DMPS and VIIRS Night Lights Data for Estimating GDP and Spatial Inequality for Rural and Urban Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Working Paper in Economics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 11 Pages  
  Keywords Remote sensing; Economics  
  Abstract Night lights, as detected by satellites, are increasingly used by economists, especially to proxy for economic activity in poor countries. Widely used data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) have several flaws; blurring, top-coding, lack of calibration, and variation in sensor amplification that impairs comparability over time and space. These flaws are not present in newer data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that is widely used in other disciplines. Economists have been slow to switch to these better VIIRS data, perhaps because flaws in DMSP are rarely emphasized. We show the relationship between night lights and Indonesian GDP at the second sub-national level for 497 spatial units. The DMSP data are not a suitable proxy for GDP outside of cities. Within the urban sector, the lights-GDP relationship is twice as noisy using DMSP as using VIIRS. Spatial inequality is considerably understated by the DMSP data. A Pareto adjustment to correct for top-coding in DMSP data has a modest effect but still understates spatial inequality and misses much of the intra-city heterogeneity in the brightness of lights for Jakarta.  
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  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3159  
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Author Almpanidou, V.; Tsapalou, V.; Tsavdaridou, A.I.; Mazaris, A.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The dark side of raptors’ distribution ranges under climate change Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol  
  Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 1435-1443  
  Keywords Animals; Remote sensing  
  Abstract Context

Artificial light at night (ALAN) represents a significant threat to biodiversity. Given that protected areas (PAs) are in relative darkness compared to the surrounding sites, they could be considered an effective tool towards eliminating the impacts of ALAN. However, the extent to which climate change-induced shifts would drive species out of PAs and thus, alter their exposure to ALAN remains an open question.

Objectives

We assessed the extent and protection coverage of dark areas across the current and future distributions of 39 raptor species of European conservation interest.

Methods

We initially developed a set of distribution models using current and projected climatic variables. Next, we used a satellite dataset of nighttime lights composite to determine the spread of ALAN within the raptors’ ranges. Finally, we applied three indices of proportional changes in the expansion of suitable habitats and dark areas to quantify patterns in ALAN within the current and future raptors’ ranges across Europe.

Results

Our analyses revealed that potential future distribution shifts of raptors will lead to changes in the exposure of species to ALAN, with these patterns being rather unfavourable for most of them. Still, PAs in Europe were found to offer a relative high proportion of dark areas which overlap with the current and future raptors range.

Conclusions

Our findings provided some first insights into the spatial conflict between species ranges and ALAN, considering potential distribution shifts driven by climate change. The proposed methodology offers the means to identify potential dark refugia towards prioritizing conservation actions.
 
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  ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3157  
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Author Péter Á.; Seress G.; Sándor K.; Vincze E.; Klucsik K. P.; Liker A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of artificial light at night on the biomass of caterpillars feeding in urban tree canopies Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Alternation of day and night is the oldest cycle on Earth, which is increasingly disturbed by the accelerating rate of urbanization and technological development. Despite the ubiquity of light pollution in cities, many aspects of its influence on urban ecosystems are still poorly understood. Here we studied the effect of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the biomass of arboreal caterpillar populations, which are a major component of the diet of many insectivorous animals. We predicted that increasing ALAN intensity is associated with reduced caterpillar biomass, because ALAN may increase predation risk for both caterpillars and adult lepidopterans (i.e. moths), and can also hinder the moths’ reproductive rate. We estimated caterpillar biomass from frass samples (n = 3061) collected from 36 focal trees in two cities in Hungary during four consecutive years. To quantify ALAN we measured light intensity during night at each focal tree (range of illumination: 0.69–3.18 lx). We found that caterpillar biomass of individual trees was repeatable over the four years. This temporal consistency in prey biomass production may be important for birds because it can help predict territory quality, especially in cities where caterpillar abundance is generally low. Our results did not support the negative effect of ALAN on urban caterpillar populations, because ALAN intensity was not related to caterpillar biomass, and this lack of effect was consistent between study sites and tree species. We suggest that the effect of ALAN on urban caterpillar biomass is either weak and thus can be masked by other, local environmental factors, or light pollution may have antagonistic effects acting during different stages of the lepidopteran life cycle. Another explanation could be that even the lower levels of our sites’ public lighting are strong enough to cause serious detrimental effects for caterpillars, resulting in their uniformly low biomass.  
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  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3156  
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Author Buxton, R.T.; Seymoure, B.M.; White, J.; Angeloni, L.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Fristrup, K.; McKenna, M.F.; Wittemyer, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The relationship between anthropogenic light and noise in U.S. national parks Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol  
  Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 1371-1384  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Conservation; Skyglow  
  Abstract Context

Natural sound and light regulate fundamental biological processes and are central to visitor experience in protected areas. As such, anthropogenic light and noise have negative effects on both wildlife and humans. While prior studies have examined the distribution and levels of light or noise, joint analyses are rarely undertaken despite their potentially cumulative effects.

Objectives

We examine the relationship between different types of anthropogenic light and noise conditions and what factors drive correlation, co-occurrences, and divergence between them.

Methods

We overlaid existing geospatial models of anthropogenic light and noise with landscape predictors in national parks across the continental U.S.

Results

Overlapping dark and quiet were the most common conditions (82.5–87.1% of park area), representing important refuges for wildlife and human experience. We found low correlation between anthropogenic light and noise (Spearman’s R < 0.25), with the exception of parks with a higher density of roads. Park land within urban areas had the highest probability of co-occurring high light and noise exposure, while park areas with divergent light and noise exposure (e.g., high light and low noise) were most commonly found 5–20 km from urban areas and in parks with roads present.

Conclusions

These analyses demonstrate that light and noise exposure are not always correlated in national parks, which was unexpected because human activities tend to produce both simultaneously. As such, mitigation efforts for anthropogenic light and noise will require efforts targeting site-specific sources of noise and light. Protecting and restoring sensory environments will involve constructive partnerships capable of reconciling diverse community interests.
 
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  ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3155  
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Author Kugler, T.A.; Grace, K.; Wrathall, D.J.; de Sherbinin, A.; Van Riper, D.; Aubrecht, C.; Comer, D.; Adamo, S.B.; Cervone, G.; Engstrom, R.; Hultquist, C.; Gaughan, A.E.; Linard, C.; Moran, E.; Stevens, F.; Tatem, A.J.; Tellman, B.; Van Den Hoek, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title People and Pixels 20 years later: the current data landscape and research trends blending population and environmental data Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Population and Environment Abbreviated Journal Popul Environ  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 209-234  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In 1998, the National Research Council published People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science. The volume focused on emerging research linking changes in human populations and land use/land cover to shed light on issues of sustainability, human livelihoods, and conservation, and led to practical innovations in agricultural planning, hazard impact analysis, and drought monitoring. Since then, new research opportunities have emerged thanks to the growing variety of remotely sensed data sources, an increasing array of georeferenced social science data, including data from mobile devices, and access to powerful computation cyberinfrastructure. In this article, we outline the key extensions of the People and Pixels foundation since 1998 and highlight several breakthroughs in research on human–environment interactions. We also identify pressing research problems—disaster, famine, drought, war, poverty, climate change—and explore how interdisciplinary approaches integrating people and pixels are being used to address them.  
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  ISSN 0199-0039 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial (down) 3154  
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