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Author Torres, D.; Tidau, S.; Jenkins, S.; Davies, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial skyglow disrupts celestial migration at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R696-R697  
  Keywords Animals; Skyglow  
  Abstract Our understanding of the ecological impacts of direct outdoor lighting has improved substantially over the last decade [1, 2, 3]. In contrast, the impacts of artificial skyglow — that is, artificial light that is scattered in the atmosphere and reflected back to the ground — have received comparatively little attention [4]. Artificial skyglow extends the influence of direct lighting out to hundreds of kilometres from direct sources (for example street lights). It is the most geographically widespread form of light pollution, affecting 23% of the world’s land surface (between 75°N and 60°S) [5]. Artificial skyglow illuminances are two orders of magnitude lower (0.2–0.5 lx) than light pollution from direct artificial light (typically 10–100 lx), but greater than moonlight (0.1–0.3 lx) and light from the Milky Way (0.001 lx). Numerous organisms from across the animal kingdom orient themselves during migrations using lunar compasses [6, 7, 8, 9], and are vulnerable to artificial skyglow across large (10–100 km) spatial scales. Here we demonstrate that artificial skyglow disrupts nightly migrations by the amphipod Talitrus saltator (commonly known as the sandhopper), which uses the sky position of the moon [9, 10] as a guide.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3012  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Deijk, J.R.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Visser, M.E.; Veenendaal, E.; Spoelstra, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Experimental light at night has a negative long-term impact on macro-moth populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R694-R695  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract The current decline in insect numbers and biomass is likely due to several factors [1] and one of the lesser studied factors is the increased artificial light at night (ALAN). Several negative impacts of ALAN on insects have been described [2] but evidence that it ultimately results in population declines has been circumstantial due to a lack of emperical data [3,4]. Here, we experimentally exposed natural habitats to three colours of artificial light, and a dark control, and studied the impact on moth population numbers during five consecutive years. With this experimental, multi-year study, we can isolate the effects of artificial light from other anthropogenic factors that are often confounded in correlative studies. Furthermore, we can study long-term effects that only become apparent after several years. In the first two years, the number of moths in the illuminated and dark treatments did not differ, but after the second year, the number of moths in the illuminated treatments was lower than in the dark control (Figure 1). This first implies a causal relationship between ALAN and local population declines and thus a contribution of ALAN to insect declines.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3011  
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Author Moore-Ede, M.; Heitmann, A.; Guttkuhn, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian Potency Spectrum with Extended Exposure to Polychromatic White LED Light under Workplace Conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Human Health; circadian; human; light spectrum; melatonin; spectral sensitivity  
  Abstract Electric light has enabled humans to conquer the night, but light exposure at night can disrupt the circadian timing system and is associated with a diverse range of health disorders. To provide adequate lighting for visual tasks without disrupting the human circadian timing system, a precise definition of circadian spectral sensitivity is required. Prior attempts to define the circadian spectral sensitivity curve have used short (</=90-min) monochromatic light exposures in dark-adapted human subjects or in vitro dark-adapted isolated retina or melanopsin. Several lines of evidence suggest that these dark-adapted circadian spectral sensitivity curves, in addition to 430- to 499-nm (blue) wavelength sensitivity, may include transient 400- to 429-nm (violet) and 500- to 560-nm (green) components mediated by cone- and rod-originated extrinsic inputs to intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which decay over the first 2 h of extended light exposure. To test the hypothesis that the human circadian spectral sensitivity in light-adapted conditions may have a narrower, predominantly blue, sensitivity, we used 12-h continuous exposures of light-adapted healthy human subjects to 6 polychromatic white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources with diverse spectral power distributions at recommended workplace levels of illumination (540 lux) to determine their effect on the area under curve of the overnight (2000-0800 h) salivary melatonin. We derived a narrow steady-state human Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity curve with a peak at 477 nm and a full-width half-maximum of 438 to 493 nm. This light-adapted Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity permits the development of spectrally engineered LED light sources to minimize circadian disruption and address the health risks of light exposure at night in our 24/7 society, by alternating between daytime circadian stimulatory white light spectra and nocturnal circadian protective white light spectra.  
  Address Data Analytics Department, Circadian Technologies, Inc., Stoneham, Massachusetts  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32539484 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3010  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kumar, A.; Shaw, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Transforming rural light and dark under planetary urbanisation: Comparing ordinary countrysides in India and the<scp>UK</scp> Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Abbreviated Journal Trans Inst Br Geogr  
  Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 155-167  
  Keywords Psychology; Society  
  Abstract Contemporary global lightscapes are becoming increasingly complex and varied, creating an unusual geography of technological development and diffusion that defies many easy narratives of global interconnectivity. Specifically, new LED lighting technologies are being created through rural experimentation in both Global North and Global South. This makes lighting, and darkness, an interesting lens through which to intervene in debates on the relationship between city, countryside, and planet, specifically addressing the theoretical developments of comparative urbanism and planetary urbanisation. Heading calls to develop conceptual material from both Global North and Global South, we use case studies from Bihar (India) and the North Pennines (UK ) to argue that the changing lighting technologies and practices show how “ordinary countrysides” are contributing to new planetary ways of living. We argue that while there are differences in how darkness and the implementation of artificial lighting are perceived in these sites, there are similarities that reveal an ongoing rural form of planetary living, outside the claims of urbanisation. Particularly, rural lives are marked by a closer connection to the planet, as expressed through experiences of rural darkness. Furthermore, in both sites the tenuous grasp on infrastructure and state services seems to reveal a shared rural experience. These findings suggest shared rural experiences of globalisation, but that the socio‐spatial contexts of places remain important in understanding their location within global systems. Furthermore, we join recent calls to suggest that further exploration of the difference between “global” and “planetary” might add nuance to theoretical trends in urban studies, rural studies, and geography.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0020-2754 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3009  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zielinska-Dabkowska, K.M.; Xavia, K.; Bobkowska, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of Citizens’ Actions against Light Pollution with Guidelines for Future Initiatives Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 4997  
  Keywords Society; History; Conservation; Law; Activism; Education  
  Abstract Due to the wide reach of media reports about scientific research and technological tools such as the world wide web (WWW), the Internet, and web browsers, citizens today have access to factual information about the negative impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on their dark skies, and their health and well-being. This means they can now make educated decisions and take the necessary steps to help protect themselves and their communities from disruptive light pollution. Whilst this action is positive and welcomed, unfortunately, according to collected data, not all such initiatives have been successful. Although our understanding of this groundswell movement is deepening, further studies are required to complete a worldwide picture of the current situation. This paper therefore investigates the various actions taken by citizens, as well as the challenges, methods, and tools involved, regarding good practices initiated by grass roots activism on how to reduce existing and potential light pollution. The results of a comparative analysis of 262 international case studies (lawsuits and online petitions) reveal that, since the 1990s, there has been an increase in the number of legal cases related to light pollution due to the rise in public awareness, the availability of scientific knowledge via the Internet, and the ability to take accurate lighting measurements and perform lighting simulations. Also, in the last decade a new tool for digital participation in the form of online petitions has established a new movement of citizen action to mitigate the effects of light pollution. Based on this information, a seven-step framework involving recommendations for citizen action has been developed. It is expected that this new knowledge will benefit those citizens planning future efforts involving the development, implementation, and monitoring processes of outdoor lighting. Additionally, it might support the evolution of planning and policy approaches that are sustainable and necessary to improve the application and installation of ecologically/biologically responsible illumination for towns, cities, and natural habitats.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3008  
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