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Author Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ground albedo impacts on higher-order scattering spectral radiances of night sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 239 Issue Pages 106670  
  Keywords skyglow  
  Abstract The contribution from ground reflected light to the night sky radiance is of increased interest because of constant modernization of street lighting systems that now efficiently eliminate light emissions above the horizontal plane, so the appreciable fraction of artificial light directed upwards is from ground reflection. Diffuse light of a night sky shows a positive correlation with ground albedo (α), but it seems there is no linear trend between α and the night sky brightness (NSB), at least not for all sky elements, and, the mechanism of this relationship becomes even more complicated due to multiple scattering effects. The extent to which the ground reflectance influences the higher-order scattering radiance of night sky, and, the factors that initiate the crossover from single- to multiple-scattering dominance of the sky glow has been virtually unexplored until now.

We demonstrate here that albedo-induced effects in NSB exhibit an angular dependence, with amplitudes enhanced towards shorter wavelengths. For low values of ground reflectance and at short distances from a light source, the second-scattering radiance is found to be only a few percent of the first-order scattering radiance. However, the ratio of a higher- to the first-order scattering radiance gradually increases near horizon, specifically at the side opposite to the azimuthal position of the light source. Also the NSB in blue band has decreasing gradation tendency when increasing the altitude above sea level. The findings in this paper are significant in a proper incorporation of higher-order scattering in modeling the NSB under elevated reflectance conditions, and may be critical for saving computational time.
 
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2679  
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Author Ebbensgaard, C.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Standardised difference: Challenging uniform lighting through standards and regulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal Urban Studies  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Regulation; Lighting; Conservation; Darkness; Planning; Society  
  Abstract Artificial lighting has received increased attention from urban scholars and geographers in recent years. It is celebrated for its experimental aesthetics and experiential qualities and critiqued for its adverse effects on biological life and the environment. Yet scholars and practitioners unite in their disapproval of uniform and homogenous lighting that follows from standardised lighting technologies and design principles. Absent from debates in urban scholarship and geography, however, is any serious consideration of how lighting designers respond to such standardised measures and regulations. In this article, I address this lack of academic attention by exploring how designers overturn the restrictive challenges posed by the standards and regulations of the design and planning process. Drawing on interviews with designers involved in the lighting design of a mixed-use redevelopment project in Canning Town, East London, I demonstrate how the interpretation and translation of lighting standards and regulations resist the tendency to predetermine design aesthetics and functions. By drawing attention away from the technical specifications and numerical values that are prescribed in standards and regulations, and towards lighting’s experiential and performative effects, the article argues that lighting designers can play an important role in challenging how standards and regulations are measured, defined and maintained. Calling on urban scholars to play a more prominent role in foregrounding this process of translation, I suggest that standards and regulations can provide frameworks within which luminous differentiation and preservation of darkness can be achieved, playing a potentially crucial role in ensuring a socially and environmentally sustainable transition to energy efficient lighting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0042-0980 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2678  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zhao,; Zhou,; Li,; Cao,; He,; Yu,; Li,; Elvidge,; Cheng,; Zhou, url  doi
openurl 
  Title Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing of Nighttime Light Observations: Advances, Challenges, and Perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 17 Pages 1971  
  Keywords Review; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Nighttime light observations from remote sensing provide us with a timely and spatially explicit measure of human activities, and therefore enable a host of applications such as tracking urbanization and socioeconomic dynamics, evaluating armed conflicts and disasters, investigating fisheries, assessing greenhouse gas emissions and energy use, and analyzing light pollution and health effects. The new and improved sensors, algorithms, and products for nighttime lights, in association with other Earth observations and ancillary data (e.g., geo-located big data), together offer great potential for a deep understanding of human activities and related environmental consequences in a changing world. This paper reviews the advances of nighttime light sensors and products and examines the contributions of nighttime light remote sensing to perceiving the changing world from two aspects (i.e., human activities and environmental changes). Based on the historical review of the advances in nighttime light remote sensing, we summarize the challenges in current nighttime light remote sensing research and propose four strategic directions, including: Improving nighttime light data; developing a long time series of consistent nighttime light data; integrating nighttime light observations with other data and knowledge; and promoting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary analyses of nighttime light observations.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2677  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Verra, D.M.; Sajdak, B.S.; Merriman, D.K.; Hicks, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Diurnal rodents as pertinent animal models of human retinal physiology and pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Progress in Retinal and eye Research Abbreviated Journal Prog Retin Eye Res  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Vision  
  Abstract This presentation will survey the retinal architecture, advantages, and limitations of several lesser-known rodent species that provide a useful diurnal complement to rats and mice. These diurnal rodents also possess unusually cone-rich photoreceptor mosaics that facilitate the study of cone cells and pathways. Species to be presented include principally the Sudanian Unstriped Grass Rat and Nile Rat (Arvicanthis spp.), the Fat Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus), the degu (Octodon degus) and the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). The retina and optic nerve in several of these species demonstrate unusual resilience in the face of neuronal injury, itself an interesting phenomenon with potential translational value.  
  Address Department of Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Integratives (INCI), CNRS UPR 3212, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: photoreceptor67@hotmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1350-9462 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31499165 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2676  
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Author Wallner, S.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of surface albedo variations on the night sky brightness – A numerical and experimental analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze surface albedo impacts on artificial night sky brightness at zenith. The way in which these parameters correlate with each other is analyzed numerically and then experimentally by Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) in the city of Linz, Austria between 2016 and 2018. Three SQMs are located in city areas that differ in ground type, while other two are installed outside but near the city. To eliminate systematic errors of different SQMs or a missing inter-calibration of all devices, we examine relative change in zenithal brightness instead of its absolute values. However, the ground albedo not only depends on the ground type, but also shows seasonal variation most often driven by vegetation and environmental change. To understand these changes, we use SkyGlow simulator to perform numerical experiments on four different albedo models. The results have proven that seasonal variations are clearly visible as green city parts become darker around autumn and ratios to urban located SQMs increase. We show that there is a major difference in simulation results if either conducting city parts with various surface albedos or using only one averaged value over the whole city. The latter produces worse fit to the observed SQM data, implying that a use of various surface albedos is a need when modelling zenithal brightness in artificially lit areas of a city or town. Also, the seasonal changes of surface albedo cannot be neglected and the parameter itself must be included in the modelling tools.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2675  
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