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Author Grove, L.
Title Reducing Acadia's Light Pollution Type Manuscript
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Conservation; Society; Economics; Acadia National Park; Maine; benefit cost analysis; astrotourism; contingent valuation method; dark sky places; dark sky park
Abstract Acadia National Park is among the most visited national parks in the United States, attracting millions of people per year. Thousands of those visitors come to the park for “astro-tourism,” as Acadia has become one of the premier stargazing locations on the east coast. There remains, however, the continued threat from light pollution from the surrounding communities that negatively affects Acadia's darkness, contributing to a lesser visitor experience and potentially harming native ecosystems. Although park management and community organizations have engaged in significant efforts to decrease Acadia's nighttime light levels and raise awareness among visitors and locals regarding the importance of darkness, the park still seek to continue to decrease light pollution. This report developed policy options that could help solve the long-term policy goal of decreasing nighttime lighting levels within and around Acadia while also using the International Dark-Sky Association's Dark-Sky Park designation requirements as a reasonable, short-term policy benchmark.

Working within existing organizations, the policy options crafted to address Acadia’s nighttime lighting levels were analyzed both qualitatively through a criteria evaluation and quantitatively through a Benefit Cost Analysis.

The options included 1) the formation of a Darkness Coalition within the League of Towns, 2) a reimagining of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Dark-Sky Project into the Dark-Sky Taskforce, 3) the creation of a Lighting Consultant position paid through the Friends of Acadia Wild Acadia initiative, and 4) the combination of Coalition and the Taskforce into the League of Towns – Dark-Sky Partnership (LOT-DSP). The report recommends the adoption of Option 4 – the creation of the LOT – DSP. While this option does not provide the greatest estimated monetary net value compared to the Status Quo in the quantitative evaluation, it still provides an estimated benefit of about $105 million over the course of five years and is the strongest option in the qualitative analysis. The LOT – DSP provides the best opportunity for Acadia to achieve legitimate and long-lasting nighttime light level reduction.
Address Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, Garrett Hall, 235 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400893, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4893 USA; locher.grove(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis
Publisher University of Virginia Place of Publication Charlottesville Editor
Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1449
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Author Petrželková, K. J.; Downs, N. C.; Zukal, J.; Racey, P. A.
Title A comparison between emergence and return activity in pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 381-390
Keywords animals; fying mammals: animal behaviour
Abstract Bats may be vulnerable to predation during evening emergence and morning return to their roosts. Early emergence increases the risk of exposure to raptorial birds, but emerging late confers a risk of missing the dusk peak of aerial insects. Here, both emergence and return activity was studied in detail at the same roosts for the first time. We investigated six maternity colonies of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) in NE Scotland and recorded light levels and time of emergence and return of the bats with respect to sunset and sunrise on the same nights. Parameters of return activity generally occurred at lower light intensities than those of emergence. Therefore, the interval between dawn return and sunrise was generally longer than that between sunset and dusk emergence. Emergence and return were equal in duration. Bats clustered more on emergence in comparison with return during pregnancy and lactation, whereas during postlactation this trend was reversed.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BioOne Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1598
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Cruse, D.; Blumgart, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Multiple night-time light-emitting diode lighting strategies impact grassland invertebrate assemblages Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 2641-2648
Keywords Ecology; grasslands; LED
Abstract White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are rapidly replacing conventional outdoor lighting technologies around the world. Despite rising concerns over their impact on the environment and human health, the flexibility of LEDs has been advocated as a means of mitigating the ecological impacts of globally widespread outdoor night-time lighting through spectral manipulation, dimming and switching lights off during periods of low demand. We conducted a three-year field experiment in which each of these lighting strategies was simulated in a previously artificial light naive grassland ecosystem. White LEDs both increased the total abundance and changed the assemblage composition of adult spiders and beetles. Dimming LEDs by 50% or manipulating their spectra to reduce ecologically damaging wavelengths partially reduced the number of commoner species affected from seven to four. A combination of dimming by 50% and switching lights off between midnight and 04:00 am showed the most promise for reducing the ecological costs of LEDs, but the abundances of two otherwise common species were still affected. The environmental consequences of using alternative lighting technologies are increasingly well established. These results suggest that while management strategies using LEDs can be an effective means of reducing the number of taxa affected, averting the ecological impacts of night-time lighting may ultimately require avoiding its use altogether.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28139040 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1634
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Author Van Doren, B.; Horton, K.G.; Dokter, A.M.; Klinck, H.; Elbin, S.B., Farnsworth, A.; Dokter, A.M; Klinck, H.; Elbin, S.B.; Farnsworth, A.
Title High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird migration Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Publications of the National Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal PNAS
Volume 114 Issue 42 Pages 11175-11180
Keywords Animals; artificial light; nocturnal migration; remote sensing; radar; ornithology; flight calls
Abstract Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring the beams of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum's “Tribute in Light” in New York, quantifying behavioral responses with radar and acoustic sensors and modeling disorientation and attraction with simulations. This single light source induced significant behavioral alterations in birds, even in good visibility conditions, in this heavily photopolluted environment, and to altitudes up to 4 km. We estimate that the installation influenced ≈1.1 million birds during our study period of 7 d over 7 y. When the installation was illuminated, birds aggregated in high densities, decreased flight speeds, followed circular flight paths, and vocalized frequently. Simulations revealed a high probability of disorientation and subsequent attraction for nearby birds, and bird densities near the installation exceeded magnitudes 20 times greater than surrounding baseline densities during each year’s observations. However, behavioral disruptions disappeared when lights were extinguished, suggesting that selective removal of light during nights with substantial bird migration is a viable strategy for minimizing potentially fatal interactions among ALAN, structures, and birds. Our results also highlight the value of additional studies describing behavioral patterns of nocturnally migrating birds in powerful lights in urban areas as well as conservation implications for such lighting installations.
Address Information Science Program, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA; af27{at}cornell.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher PNAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1091-6490 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1741
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title Towards a Comprehensive City Emission Function (CCEF) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume 205 Issue Pages 253-266
Keywords Lighting; Skyglow
Abstract The comprehensive city emission function (CCEF) is developed for a heterogeneous light-emitting or blocking urban environments, embracing any combination of input parameters that characterize linear dimensions in the system (size and distances between buildings or luminaires), properties of light-emitting elements (such as luminous building façades and street lighting), ground reflectance and total uplight-fraction, all of these defined for an arbitrarily sized 2D area. The analytical formula obtained is not restricted to a single model class as it can capture any specific light-emission feature for wide range of cities. The CCEF method is numerically fast in contrast to what can be expected of other probabilistic approaches that rely on repeated random sampling. Hence the present solution has great potential in light-pollution modeling and can be included in larger numerical models. Our theoretical findings promise great progress in light-pollution modeling as this is the first time an analytical solution to city emission function (CEF) has been developed that depends on statistical mean size and height of city buildings, inter-building separation, prevailing heights of light fixtures, lighting density, and other factors such as e.g. luminaire light output and light distribution, including the amount of uplight, and representative city size. The model is validated for sensitivity and specificity pertinent to combinations of input parameters in order to test its behavior under various conditions, including those that can occur in complex urban environments. It is demonstrated that the solution model succeeds in reproducing a light emission peak at some elevated zenith angles and is consistent with reduced rather than enhanced emission in directions nearly parallel to the ground.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ScienceDirect Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (down) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1757
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