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Author Zamorano Calvo, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Pascual Ramírez, S.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Ramírez Moreta, P.; Challupner, P. url  openurl
  Title ISS nocturnal images as a scientific tool against Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Unpublished working paper submitted to NASA JSC Imaging Lab Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The potential of the night pictures taken from the International Space Station (ISS) with a Nikon D3s digital camera to fight against light pollution is shown. A scientific analysis of ISS026-E-26493 RAW image of Madrid at night with techniques used by astronomers and cartographers is performed. We suggest an observational setup to obtain useful scientific information from the pictures including series of exposures and calibration frames.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 492  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.E.; Kihn, E.A.; Kroehl, H.W.; Davis, E.R. url  openurl
  Title Mapping city lights with night-time data from the DMSP operational linescan system. Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  
  Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 727-734  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a unique capability to detect low levels of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) radiance at

night. With the OLS “VIS” band data, it is possible to detect clouds illuminated by moonlight, plus lights from cities, towns, industrial sites, gas pares, and ephemeral events such as fires and lightning illuminated clouds. This paper presents methods which have been developed for detecting and geolocating VNIR emission sources with nighttime DMSP-OLS data and the analysis of image time series to identify spatially stable emissions from cities, towns, and industrial sites. Results are presented for the United States.
 
  Address Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Reno, NV 89506 and the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303; cde(at)ngdc.noaa.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 497  
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Author Wright, K.P.J.; McHill, A.W.; Birks, B.R.; Griffin, B.R.; Rusterholz, T.; Chinoy, E.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages 1554-1558  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight; Young Adult; Circadian Rhythm  
  Abstract The electric light is one of the most important human inventions. Sleep and other daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, however, evolved in the natural light-dark cycle [1], and electrical lighting is thought to have disrupted these rhythms. Yet how much the age of electrical lighting has altered the human circadian clock is unknown. Here we show that electrical lighting and the constructed environment is associated with reduced exposure to sunlight during the day, increased light exposure after sunset, and a delayed timing of the circadian clock as compared to a summer natural 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle camping. Furthermore, we find that after exposure to only natural light, the internal circadian clock synchronizes to solar time such that the beginning of the internal biological night occurs at sunset and the end of the internal biological night occurs before wake time just after sunrise. In addition, we find that later chronotypes show larger circadian advances when exposed to only natural light, making the timing of their internal clocks in relation to the light-dark cycle more similar to earlier chronotypes. These findings have important implications for understanding how modern light exposure patterns contribute to late sleep schedules and may disrupt sleep and circadian clocks.  
  Address Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA. kenneth.wright@colorado.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23910656; PMCID:PMC4020279 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 505  
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Author Crumey, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human Contrast Threshold and Astronomical Visibility. Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 422 Issue 3 Pages 2600-2619  
  Keywords Vision; visibility; skyglow; sky brightness; modeling  
  Abstract The standard visibility model in light-pollution studies is the formula of Hecht, as used e.g. by Schaefer. However, it is applicable only to point sources and is shown to be of limited accuracy. A new visibility model is presented for uniform achromatic targets of any size against background luminances ranging from zero to full daylight, produced by a systematic procedure applicable to any appropriate data set (e.g. Blackwell's), and based on a simple but previously unrecognized empirical relation between contrast threshold and adaptation luminance. The scotopic luminance correction for variable spectral radiance (colour index) is calculated. For point sources, the model is more accurate than Hecht's formula and is verified using telescopic data collected at Mount Wilson in 1947, enabling the sky brightness at that time to be determined. The result is darker than the calculation by Garstang, implying that light pollution grew more rapidly in subsequent decades than has been supposed. The model is applied to the nebular observations of William Herschel, enabling his visual performance to be quantified. Proposals are made regarding sky quality indicators for public use.  
  Address Department of Humanities, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK; andrew.crumey(at)northumbria.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 536  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume 443 Issue 4 Pages 3665-3674  
  Keywords Skyglow; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical  
  Abstract The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 538  
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