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Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N.
Title (down) Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 1440-1455
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2588
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Author Orlando, L.; Ortega, L.; Defeo, O.
Title (down) Urbanization effects on sandy beach macrofauna along an estuarine gradient Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators
Volume 111 Issue Pages in press
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The rapid urban population growth and coastal infrastructure development worldwide add dimensionality and complexity to the management process in sandy shores, and therefore the development of beach quality indices that take into account the increasing role of urbanization are particularly relevant. This work analyses the potential of human population density (HPD), nighttime lights and vegetation cover as indicators of urban impact on sandy beach biodiversity. Each indicator was tested against a large-scale 2-yr study of macrofaunal richness and physical characteristics along a strong environmental gradient defined by the widest estuary of the world, the Rio de la Plata. A negative linear relationship between HPD and the number of species was found. The amount of light recorded at night peaked at the most urbanized area in the coast, Montevideo city, and showed a negative relationship with macrofaunal richness. Vegetation cover, expressed through a normalized difference vegetation index, showed a weak positive relationship with species richness. Multiple linear regressions, combining urban indicators and physical characteristics as explanatory variables of macrofaunal richness, showed the best results when HPD and salinity range were combined. A regression tree explained 65% of deviance and had a structure coherent with previous results. Salinity was the dominant ecological driver: beaches with salinity ≥27.2 showed higher species richness, while beaches with less salinity and higher nighttime lights showed the lowest species richness. Random Forests selected salinity (mean and range) and HPD as the most informative variables to discriminate groups of beaches according to their macrobenthic richness. These results reflect that the salinity gradient is a macroscale driver that shapes species richness patterns along this coast, whereas the effects of urbanization are confined within the dominant large-scale environmental gradient. The identification of suitable urban indicators provided in this work constitutes the first step onto the development of more rigorous approaches to assess this globally relevant and long-lasting stressor.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2819
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Author Supronowicz, R.; Fryc, I.
Title (down) Urban park lighting as a source of botanical light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Photonics Letters of Poland Abbreviated Journal Photon.Lett.PL
Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 90
Keywords Plants
Abstract That paper describesthe relative impact of anartificial lighting deviceon botanical light pollution, consideringspectral power distribution (SPD in the lighting area. This impact is described by the Relative-to-Moon Photosynthesis Index (RMPI)and Induced Phytochrome Index (IPr). We found that in the case when lighting is realized by using LED luminaires instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) or metal halide (MH) lamps, the influence of spectral light on plant vegetation process amplifies. Additionally,our research shows that estimating botanical light pollution on the basis of lamps’CCT is not the best method and that using SPD is better for this purpose.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2080-2242 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2691
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Author Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M.
Title (down) Urban night-sky luminance due to different cloud types: A numerical experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 48 Issue 8 Pages 1017-1033
Keywords Skyglow; modeling; urban; clouds; radiative transfer
Abstract In this paper, we analyse theoretically and numerically the sky glow in urban and suburban areas, focusing on the zenith-normalised luminance of a cloudy sky. The results suggest that the altitude of a cloud imposes important changes in the luminance distribution. Peak values of sky luminance can be observed at a distance d = R + h tan (z), where R is the city radius, and h is the cloud altitude. Fluctuations of the zenith-normalised luminance over the city are dictated by three effects, specifically (i) extinction and backscatter in the undercloud atmosphere, (ii) the cloud properties and (iii) the radiant intensity function of the dominant ground-based light sources. For high clouds, the aerosol optical property is evident at moderate elevation angles. The light beams emitted from different parts of the city propagate along different inclined trajectories before they contribute to the elevated zenith luminance of low clouds. Then, multiple factors combine together to form the light field at the ground, city-size and city emission pattern being of specific importance.
Address Cátedras CONACYT, Instituto de investigaciones Dr José María Luis Mora, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios Metropolitanos (CentroMet), Plaza Valentín Gómez Farías #12 Col. San Juan Mixcoac, México D.F. C.P 03730. E-mail: lamphar(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1225
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Author Li, X.; Zhou, Y.
Title (down) Urban mapping using DMSP/OLS stable night-time light: a review Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 38 Issue 21 Pages 6030-6046
Keywords Remote Sensing; Review
Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescane System (DMSP/OLS) stable night-time light (NTL) data showed great potential in urban extent mapping across a variety of scales with historical records dating back to 1990s. In order to advance this data, a systematic methodology review on NTL-based urban extent mapping was carried out, with emphases on four aspects including the saturation of luminosity, the blooming effect, the intercalibration of time series, and their temporal pattern adjustment. We think ancillary features (e.g. land surface conditions and socioeconomic activities) can help reveal more spatial details in urban core regions with high digital number (DN) values. In addition, dynamic optimal thresholds are needed to address issues of different exaggeration of NTL data in the large scale urban mapping. Then, we reviewed three key aspects (reference region, reference satellite/year, and calibration model) in the current intercalibration framework of NTL time series, and summarized major reference regions in literature that were used for intercalibration, which is critical to achieve a globally consistent series of NTL DN values over years. Moreover, adjustment of temporal pattern on intercalibrated NTL series is needed to trace the urban sprawl process, particularly in rapidly developing regions. In addition, we analysed those applications for urban extent mapping based on the new generation NTL data of Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite. Finally, we prospected the challenges and opportunities including the improvement of temporally inconsistent NTL series, mitigation of spatial heterogeneity of blooming effect in NTL, and synthesis of different NTL satellites, in global urban extent mapping.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2222
Permanent link to this record