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Author Kazemidemneh, M.; Mahdavinejad, M.
Title (down) Use of Space Syntax Technique to Improve the Quality of Lighting and Modify Energy Consumption Patterns in Urban Spaces Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication European Journal of Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 29-40
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Urban lighting is one of the significant issues that urban designers and architects are facing, and it has received a special attention in recent years. Urban lighting pursues critical goals such as preserving the livability of the city during nighttime, providing a sense of security, maintaining the city‟s readability, etc. Use of incompatible patterns for lighting design wastes significant amount of energy annually. A master lighting plan for urban areas should be recommended to achieve these goals and prevent wasteful energy use in lighting. One of the solutions for designing an appropriate plan is to notice the pedestrian traffic pattern in the city by considering space syntax model and integration maps analysis. In this research, one of Tehran‟s regions has been chosen and its integration map has been generated using appropriate software. Tehran is selected as case study of this research while the results might be applied in other similar cities especially in developing countries. First, based on the integration degree of the passages which reveals pedestrian traffic pattern and considering recommended illuminance standards, the average required lighting has been determined. Second, comparing the measured lighting intensity and the standard amounts reveals the correlation between the presented urban lighting and energy consumption model. Eventually, different solutions for appropriate urban lighting design based on acceptable energy consumption patterns have been suggested.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2096
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Author Wallner, S.
Title (down) Usage of Vertical Fisheye-Images to Quantify Urban Light Pollution on Small Scales and the Impact of LED Conversion Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging
Volume 5 Issue 11 Pages 86
Keywords Instrumentation
Abstract The aim of this work was to develop an easy and quick technique for characterizing various lighting situations, that is, single lamps or illuminated signs and to quantify impacts on small scales like streets, buildings and near areas. The method uses a DSLR-camera equipped with fisheye-lens and the software Sky Quality Camera, both commonly used as part of night sky imagery in the light pollution community, to obtain information about luminance and correlated colour temperature. As a difference to its usual build-up, observed light emitting sources were captured by pointing the camera towards analysed objects, that is, images were taken via vertical plane imaging with very short exposure times under one second. Results have proven that this technique provides a practical way to quantify the lighting efficacy in a certain place or area, as a quantitative analysis of the direct emission towards the observer and the illumination on surroundings, that is, street surfaces, sidewalks and buildings, was performed. When conducting lamp conversions, the method can be used to characterize the gradient of change and could be a useful tool for municipalities to find the optimal lighting solution. The paper shows examples of different lighting situations like single lamps of different types, also containing various luminaires, illuminated billboards or buildings and impacts of the lighting transition to LEDs in the city of Eisenstadt, Austria. The horizontal fisheye method is interdisciplinary applicable, for example, being suitable for lighting management, to sustainability and energy saving purposes.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2749
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Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N.
Title (down) Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2588
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Author Supronowicz, R.; Fryc, I.
Title (down) Urban park lighting as a source of botanical light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Photonics Letters of Poland Abbreviated Journal Photon.Lett.PL
Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 90
Keywords Plants
Abstract That paper describesthe relative impact of anartificial lighting deviceon botanical light pollution, consideringspectral power distribution (SPD in the lighting area. This impact is described by the Relative-to-Moon Photosynthesis Index (RMPI)and Induced Phytochrome Index (IPr). We found that in the case when lighting is realized by using LED luminaires instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) or metal halide (MH) lamps, the influence of spectral light on plant vegetation process amplifies. Additionally,our research shows that estimating botanical light pollution on the basis of lamps’CCT is not the best method and that using SPD is better for this purpose.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2080-2242 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2691
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Author Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M.
Title (down) Urban night-sky luminance due to different cloud types: A numerical experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 48 Issue 8 Pages 1017-1033
Keywords Skyglow; modeling; urban; clouds; radiative transfer
Abstract In this paper, we analyse theoretically and numerically the sky glow in urban and suburban areas, focusing on the zenith-normalised luminance of a cloudy sky. The results suggest that the altitude of a cloud imposes important changes in the luminance distribution. Peak values of sky luminance can be observed at a distance d = R + h tan (z), where R is the city radius, and h is the cloud altitude. Fluctuations of the zenith-normalised luminance over the city are dictated by three effects, specifically (i) extinction and backscatter in the undercloud atmosphere, (ii) the cloud properties and (iii) the radiant intensity function of the dominant ground-based light sources. For high clouds, the aerosol optical property is evident at moderate elevation angles. The light beams emitted from different parts of the city propagate along different inclined trajectories before they contribute to the elevated zenith luminance of low clouds. Then, multiple factors combine together to form the light field at the ground, city-size and city emission pattern being of specific importance.
Address Cátedras CONACYT, Instituto de investigaciones Dr José María Luis Mora, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios Metropolitanos (CentroMet), Plaza Valentín Gómez Farías #12 Col. San Juan Mixcoac, México D.F. C.P 03730. E-mail: lamphar(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1225
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