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Author Jechow, A.; Holker, F.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Using all-sky differential photometry to investigate how nocturnal clouds darken the night sky in rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 1391  
  Keywords Skyglow; differential photometry; clouds; sky brightness  
  Abstract Artificial light at night has affected most of the natural nocturnal landscapes worldwide and the subsequent light pollution has diverse effects on flora, fauna and human well-being. To evaluate the environmental impacts of light pollution, it is crucial to understand both the natural and artificial components of light at night under all weather conditions. The night sky brightness for clear skies is relatively well understood and a reference point for a lower limit is defined. However, no such reference point exists for cloudy skies. While some studies have examined the brightening of the night sky by clouds in urban areas, the published data on the (natural) darkening by clouds is very sparse. Knowledge of reference points for the illumination of natural nocturnal environments however, is essential for experimental design and ecological modeling to assess the impacts of light pollution. Here we use differential all-sky photometry with a commercial digital camera to investigate how clouds darken sky brightness at two rural sites. The spatially resolved data enables us to identify and study the nearly unpolluted parts of the sky and to set an upper limit on ground illumination for overcast nights at sites without light pollution.  
  Address GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30718668; PMCID:PMC6361923 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2188  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kazemidemneh, M.; Mahdavinejad, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Use of Space Syntax Technique to Improve the Quality of Lighting and Modify Energy Consumption Patterns in Urban Spaces Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication European Journal of Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 29-40  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract Urban lighting is one of the significant issues that urban designers and architects are facing, and it has received a special attention in recent years. Urban lighting pursues critical goals such as preserving the livability of the city during nighttime, providing a sense of security, maintaining the city‟s readability, etc. Use of incompatible patterns for lighting design wastes significant amount of energy annually. A master lighting plan for urban areas should be recommended to achieve these goals and prevent wasteful energy use in lighting. One of the solutions for designing an appropriate plan is to notice the pedestrian traffic pattern in the city by considering space syntax model and integration maps analysis. In this research, one of Tehran‟s regions has been chosen and its integration map has been generated using appropriate software. Tehran is selected as case study of this research while the results might be applied in other similar cities especially in developing countries. First, based on the integration degree of the passages which reveals pedestrian traffic pattern and considering recommended illuminance standards, the average required lighting has been determined. Second, comparing the measured lighting intensity and the standard amounts reveals the correlation between the presented urban lighting and energy consumption model. Eventually, different solutions for appropriate urban lighting design based on acceptable energy consumption patterns have been suggested.  
  Address  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2096  
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Author Nguyen, K.Q.; Tran, P.D.; Nguyen, L.T.; To, P.V.; Morris, C.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Use of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps in combination with metal halide (MH) lamps reduce fuel consumption in the Vietnamese purse seine fishery Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Aquaculture and Fisheries Abbreviated Journal Aquaculture and Fisheries  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Economics; Animals; Lighting  
  Abstract The use of high-power lights during night-time purse seining is common in Vietnam. Typically, metal halide (MH) lamps are used in the commercial fishery to attract fish, however these lights require more energy, have a shorter lifespan, and lower chromatic performance than light emitting diode (LED) lamps. This study examined catch efficiency and fuel consumption when using LED lamps in combination with reduced numbers of MH lamps (10.24 kW), compared to conventional lighting (28.6 kW), used during purse seining off the coast of Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam. The economic performance associated with using LED lamps in this fishery was also assessed. We found no significant differences in catch rates between the different light treatments, however fuel consumption was significantly reduced. Fuel consumption per nightly trip using LED with MH lamps was 70.8 l (11.1 l/h) compared to114 l (17.45 l/hr) using MH lamps alone, an estimated 37.9% reduction in fuel consumption. An investment in LED lamps by a fishing enterprise will require additional initial costs, however our analysis revealed the financial break-event point can be reached after approximately 101 nightly trips when the fuel price is at the 2015 level of USD $0.74 per l. Fishing enterprises can increase their profitability, and reduce CO2 emissions, by using LED lamps in the Vietnamese purse seine fishery.  
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  ISSN 2468550X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3102  
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Author Wallner, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Usage of Vertical Fisheye-Images to Quantify Urban Light Pollution on Small Scales and the Impact of LED Conversion Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging  
  Volume 5 Issue 11 Pages 86  
  Keywords Instrumentation  
  Abstract The aim of this work was to develop an easy and quick technique for characterizing various lighting situations, that is, single lamps or illuminated signs and to quantify impacts on small scales like streets, buildings and near areas. The method uses a DSLR-camera equipped with fisheye-lens and the software Sky Quality Camera, both commonly used as part of night sky imagery in the light pollution community, to obtain information about luminance and correlated colour temperature. As a difference to its usual build-up, observed light emitting sources were captured by pointing the camera towards analysed objects, that is, images were taken via vertical plane imaging with very short exposure times under one second. Results have proven that this technique provides a practical way to quantify the lighting efficacy in a certain place or area, as a quantitative analysis of the direct emission towards the observer and the illumination on surroundings, that is, street surfaces, sidewalks and buildings, was performed. When conducting lamp conversions, the method can be used to characterize the gradient of change and could be a useful tool for municipalities to find the optimal lighting solution. The paper shows examples of different lighting situations like single lamps of different types, also containing various luminaires, illuminated billboards or buildings and impacts of the lighting transition to LEDs in the city of Eisenstadt, Austria. The horizontal fisheye method is interdisciplinary applicable, for example, being suitable for lighting management, to sustainability and energy saving purposes.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2749  
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Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (down) Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 1440-1455  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
 
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  ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2588  
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