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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O.
Title (up) Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706
Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants
Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086
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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title (up) Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume 662 Issue Pages 266-275
Keywords Animals; birds; Great tit; Parus major; telomere shortening; Stress
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Maggi, E.; Bongiorni, L.; Fontanini, D.; Capocchi, A.; Dal Bello, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Benedetti‐Cecchi, L.
Title (up) Artificial light at night erases positive interactions across trophic levels Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Functional Ecology Abbreviated Journal Funct Ecol
Volume in press Issue Pages 1365-2435.13485
Keywords Ecology; Bacteria; Ecosystems
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most recently recognized sources of anthropogenic disturbance, with potentially severe effects on biological systems that are still to be fully explored. Among marine ecosystems, high shore habitats are those more likely to be impacted by ALAN, due to a more intense exposition to outdoor nocturnal lightings (mostly from lamps along coastal streets and promenades, or within harbors, ports and marinas).

2.By performing in situ nocturnal manipulations of a direct source of white LED light and presence of herbivores in a Mediterranean high‐shore habitat, we assessed the interactive effects of light pollution and grazing on two key functional components of the epilithic microbial community (the cyanobacteria, as the main photoautotrophic component, and the other bacteria, mainly dominated by heterotrophs) developing on rocky shores.

3.Results showed an unexpected increase in the diversity of epilithic bacterial biofilm at unlit sites in the presence of grazers, that was more evident on the other (mainly heterotrophic) bacterial component, when giving weight to more abundant families. This effect was likely related to the mechanical removal of dead cells through the grazing activity of consumers. ALAN significantly modified this scenario, by reducing the density of grazers and thus erasing their effects on bacteria, and by increasing the diversity of more abundant cyanobacterial families.

4.Overall, direct and indirect effects on ALAN resulted in a significant increase in the diversity of the photoautotrophic component and a decrease in the heterotrophic one, likely affecting key ecosystem functions acting on rocky shore habitats.

5.ALAN may represent a threat for natural systems through the annihilation of positive interactions across trophic levels, potentially impairing the relationship between biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and interacting with other global and local stressors currently impinging on coastal areas.
Address Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; elena.maggi(at)unipi.it
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher British Ecological Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-8463 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2746
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Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Cohen, E.B.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Buler, J.J.
Title (up) Artificial Light at Night is Related to Broad-Scale Stopover Distributions of Nocturnally Migrating Landbirds along the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 395
Keywords Animals
Abstract The distributions of birds during migratory stopovers are influenced by a hierarchy of factors. For example, in temperate regions, migrants are concentrated near areas of bright artificial light at night (ALAN) and also the coastlines of large water bodies at broad spatial scales. However, less is known about what drives broad-scale stopover distributions in the tropics. We quantified seasonal densities of nocturnally migrating landbirds during spring and fall of 2011–2015, using two weather radars on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico (Sabancuy and Cancun). We tested the influence of environmental predictors in explaining broad-scale bird stopover densities. We predicted higher densities in areas (1) closer to the coast in the fall and farther away in spring and (2) closer to bright ALAN and with lower ALAN intensity in both seasons. We found that birds were more concentrated near the coastline in the fall and away from it in spring around Cancun but not Sabancuy. Counter to our expectations, we detected increased bird densities with increased distance from lights in spring around Sabancuy, and in both seasons around Cancun, suggesting avoidance of bright areas during those seasons. This is the first evidence of broad-scale bird avoidance of bright areas during stopover.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3004
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Author Zubidat, A.E.; Fares, B.; Fares, F.; Haim, A.
Title (up) Artificial Light at Night of Different Spectral Compositions Differentially Affects Tumor Growth in Mice: Interaction With Melatonin and Epigenetic Pathways Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Cancer Control : Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center Abbreviated Journal Cancer Control
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 1073274818812908
Keywords Human Health; 6-Smt; Cfl; EE-halogen; GDM-levels; body mass; carbon; corticosterone; cosinor analysis; light at night; yellow-LED
Abstract Lighting technology is rapidly advancing toward shorter wavelength illuminations that offer energy-efficient properties. Along with this advantage, the increased use of such illuminations also poses some health challenges, particularly breast cancer progression. Here, we evaluated the effects of artificial light at night (ALAN) of 4 different spectral compositions (500-595 nm) at 350 Lux on melatonin suppression by measuring its urine metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, global DNA methylation, tumor growth, metastases formation, and urinary corticosterone levels in 4T1 breast cancer cell-inoculated female BALB/c mice. The results revealed an inverse dose-dependent relationship between wavelength and melatonin suppression. Short wavelength increased tumor growth, promoted lung metastases formation, and advanced DNA hypomethylation, while long wavelength lessened these effects. Melatonin treatment counteracted these effects and resulted in reduced cancer burden. The wavelength suppression threshold for melatonin-induced tumor growth was 500 nm. These results suggest that short wavelength increases cancer burden by inducing aberrant DNA methylation mediated by the suppression of melatonin. Additionally, melatonin suppression and global DNA methylation are suggested as promising biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer. Finally, ALAN may manifest other physiological responses such as stress responses that may challenge the survival fitness of the animal under natural environments.
Address 1 The Israeli Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Chronobiology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1073-2748 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30477310; PMCID:PMC6259078 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2143
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