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Author Priyatikanto, R.; Mayangsari, L.; Prihandoko, R.A.; Admiranto, A.G.
Title (up) Classification of Continuous Sky Brightness Data Using Random Forest Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Advances in Astronomy Abbreviated Journal Advances in Astronomy
Volume 2020 Issue Pages 1-11
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract Sky brightness measuring and monitoring are required to mitigate the negative effect of light pollution as a byproduct of modern civilization. Good handling of a pile of sky brightness data includes evaluation and classification of the data according to its quality and characteristics such that further analysis and inference can be conducted properly. This study aims to develop a classification model based on Random Forest algorithm and to evaluate its performance. Using sky brightness data from 1250 nights with minute temporal resolution acquired at eight different stations in Indonesia, datasets consisting of 15 features were created to train and test the model. Those features were extracted from the observation time, the global statistics of nightly sky brightness, or the light curve characteristics. Among those features, 10 are considered to be the most important for the classification task. The model was trained to classify the data into six classes (1: peculiar data, 2: overcast, 3: cloudy, 4: clear, 5: moonlit-cloudy, and 6: moonlit-clear) and then tested to achieve high accuracy (92%) and scores (F-score = 84% and G-mean = 84%). Some misclassifications exist, but the classification results are considerably good as indicated by posterior distributions of the sky brightness as a function of classes. Data classified as class-4 have sharp distribution with typical full width at half maximum of 1.5 mag/arcsec2, while distributions of class-2 and -3 are left skewed with the latter having lighter tail. Due to the moonlight, distributions of class-5 and -6 data are more smeared or have larger spread. These results demonstrate that the established classification model is reasonably good and consistent.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1687-7969 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2878
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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M.
Title (up) Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2673 Issue 10 Pages 840-849
Keywords Vision; Transportation; Raised retroreflective pavement markers; retroreflectivity
Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2499
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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M.
Title (up) Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2673 Issue 10 Pages 840-849
Keywords Vision
Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2775
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Author Joachim, L.; Storch, T.
Title (up) Cloud Detection For Night-Time Panchromatic Visible And Near-Infrared Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci.
Volume V-2-2020 Issue Pages 853-860
Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing
Abstract Cloud detection for night-time panchromatic visible and near-infrared (VNIR) satellite imagery is typically performed based on synchronized observations in the thermal infrared (TIR). To be independent of TIR and to improve existing algorithms, we realize and analyze cloud detection based on VNIR only, here NPP/VIIRS/DNB observations. Using Random Forest for classifying cloud vs. clear and focusing on urban areas, we illustrate the importance of features describing a) the scattering by clouds especially over urban areas with their inhomogeneous light emissions and b) the normalized differences between Earth’s surface and cloud albedo especially in presence of Moon illumination. The analyses substantiate the influences of a) the training site and scene selections and b) the consideration of single scene or multi-temporal scene features on the results for the test sites. As test sites, diverse urban areas and the challenging land covers ocean, desert, and snow are considered. Accuracies of up to 85% are achieved for urban test sites.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2194-9050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3064
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Author Westby, K.M.; Medley, K.A.
Title (up) Cold Nights, City Lights: Artificial Light at Night Reduces Photoperiodically Induced Diapause in Urban and Rural Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Medical Entomology Abbreviated Journal J Med Entomol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Aedes albopictus; artificial light at night; common garden; diapause; urban ecology
Abstract As the planet becomes increasingly urbanized, it is imperative that we understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of urbanization on species. One common attribute of urbanization that differs from rural areas is the prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN). For many species, light is one of the most important and reliable environmental cues, largely governing the timing of daily and seasonal activity patterns. Recently, it has been shown that ALAN can alter behavioral, phenological, and physiological traits in diverse taxa. For temperate insects, diapause is an essential trait for winter survival and commences in response to declining daylight hours in the fall. Diapause is under strong selection pressure in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse); local adaptation and rapid evolution has been observed along a latitudinal cline. It is unknown how ALAN affects this photosensitive trait or if local adaptation has occurred along an urbanization gradient. Using a common garden experiment, we experimentally demonstrated that simulated ALAN reduces diapause incidence in this species by as much as 40%. There was no difference, however, between urban and rural demes. We also calculated diapause incidence from wild demes in urban areas to determine whether wild populations exhibited lower than predicted incidence compared to estimates from total nocturnal darkness. In early fall, lower than predicted diapause incidence was recorded, but all demes reached nearly 100% diapause before terminating egg laying. It is possible that nocturnal resting behavior in vegetation limits the amount of ALAN exposure this species experiences potentially limiting local adaptation.
Address Tyson Research Center, Washington University in Saint Louis, Eureka, MO
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-2585 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32638000 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3042
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