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Author Morelli, F.; Mikula, P.; Benedetti, Y.; Bussière, R.; Tryjanowski, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Cemeteries support avian diversity likewise urban parks in European cities: Assessing taxonomic, evolutionary and functional diversity Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Abbreviated Journal Urban Forestry & Urban Greening  
  Volume 36 Issue Pages 90-99  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to explore different components of avian diversity in two types of urban green areas, parks and cemeteries, in four European countries in relation to environmental characteristics. We studied bird species richness, functional diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries located in four European countries: the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland.

First, we found no significant differences between cemeteries and parks in bird diversity. However, in both parks and cemeteries, only: two community metrics were affected by different environmental characteristics, including local vegetation structure and presence of human-related structures. Species richness was positively correlated with tree coverage and site size, functional diversity was unrelated to any of the measured variables, while the mean evolutionary distinctiveness score was positively correlated with tree coverage and negatively associated with the coverage of flowerbeds and number of street lamps.

Our findings can be useful for urban planning: by increasing tree coverage and site size it is possible to increase both taxonomic richness and evolutionary uniqueness of bird communities. In both parks and cemeteries, the potential association between light pollution and bird species richness was negligible. We also identified some thresholds where bird diversity was higher. Bird species richness was maximized in parks/cemeteries larger than 1.4 ha, with grass coverage lower than 65%. The evolutionary uniqueness of bird communities was higher in areas with tree coverage higher than 45%. In conclusion, the findings of this study provide evidence that cemeteries work similarly than urban parks supporting avian diversity.
 
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  ISSN 1618-8667 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2141  
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Author Niklaus, S.; Albertini, S.; Schnitzer, T.K.; Denk, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Challenging a Myth and Misconception: Red-Light Vision in Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords animals; cones; electroretinogram; husbandry; photoreceptors; rat; red light; retina; rods  
  Abstract Due to the lack of L-cones in the rodent retina, it is generally assumed that red light is invisible to rodents. Thus, red lights and red filter foils are widely used in rodent husbandry and experimentation allowing researchers to observe animals in an environment that is thought to appear dark to the animals. To better understand red-light vision in rodents, we assessed retinal sensitivity of pigmented and albino rats to far-red light by electroretinogram. We examined the sensitivity to red light not only on the light- but also dark-adapted retina, as red observation lights in husbandry are used during the dark phase of the light cycle. Intriguingly, both rods and cones of pigmented as well as albino rats show a retinal response to red light, with a high sensitivity of the dark-adapted retina and large electroretinogram responses in the mesopic range. Our results challenge the misconception of rodents being red-light blind. Researchers and housing facilities should rethink the use of red observation lights at night.  
  Address Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED), Pharmaceutical Sciences (PS), Roche Innovation Center Basel, 4070 Basel, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32138167 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2844  
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Author Pagden, M.; Ngahane, K.; Amin, M.S.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Changing the colour of night on urban streets – LED vs. part-night lighting system Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Socio-Economic Planning Sciences Abbreviated Journal Socio-Economic Planning Sciences  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 100692  
  Keywords Energy; Planning; Economics; United Kingdom; LED; Lighting  
  Abstract Many cities in the United Kingdom are upgrading the streetlights to white light-emitting diode (LED) lamps for reducing the electricity costs and attaining the sustainable energy solutions. Installation of LED lamps on urban street requires higher installation costs and a long-term period to payback benefits of replacing outdated streetlights in terms of energy savings and costs. To achieve the short-term energy efficiency of urban street lighting, city councils sometimes adopt the part-night lighting system particularly in the residential areas. The Coventry City Council recently replaced 29,701 existing sodium lights with LED lamps. This paper performs the economic analyses to understand the feasibility of two street lighting systems: LED lamps and ‘part-night’ lightings on the Coventry streets during the twenty-year period assuming the return period of investment is twenty years. The projection of energy consumption and costs for LED lamps and part-night lighting systems shows that electricity can be saved by 44% and 21% comparing to current electricity usages, respectively. Considering the budgetary constraints of Coventry City Council, this paper concludes that the part-night lighting system may be beneficial in short-term period, but it is economically feasible to replace the existing lower efficiency lights with LED lamps.  
  Address Faculty of Engineering, Environment & Computing, Coventry University, Priory St, Coventry, West Midlands, CV1 5FB, United Kingdom; pagdenm(at)uni.coventry.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher English Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0038-0121 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2234  
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Author Amano, T.; Ripperger, J.A.; Albrecht, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Changing the light schedule in late pregnancy alters birth timing in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Theriogenology Abbreviated Journal Theriogenology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract In rats, birth timing is affected by changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period. This phenomenon can be used to control birth timing in the animal industry and/or clinical fields. However, changes in the light schedule until the middle of the pregnancy period can damage the fetus by affecting the development of the major organs. Thus, we compared birth timing in mice kept under a 12-h light/12-h darkness schedule (L/D) throughout pregnancy with that of mice kept under a light schedule that changed from L/D to constant light (L/L) or constant darkness (D/D) from day 17.5 of pregnancy, the latter phase of the pregnancy period. On average, the pregnancy period was longer in D/D mice (19.9 days) than L/L or L/D mice (19.5 and 19.3 days, respectively, P < 0.05), confirming that light schedule affects birth timing. The average number of newborns was the same in L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (7.5, 7.8, and 7.9, respectively), but the average newborn weight of L/L mice (1.3 g) was lower than that of L/D and D/D mice (both 1.4 g, P < 0.05), indicating that constant light has detrimental effects on fetus growth. However, the percentage of dead newborns was the same between L/L, L/D, and D/D mice (11.1, 10.6, and 3.6%, respectively). The serum progesterone level on day 18.5 of pregnancy in L/D mice was 42.8 ng/ml, lower (P < 0.05) than that of D/D mice (65.3 ng/ml), suggesting that light schedule affects luteolysis. The average pregnancy period of mice lacking a circadian clock kept under D/D conditions from day 17.5 of pregnancy (KO D/D) (20.3 days) was delayed compared with wild-type (WT) D/D mice (P < 0.05). However, the average number of newborns, percentage of births with dead pups, and weight per newborn of KO D/D mice (7.6, 3.6%, and 1.4 g, respectively) were the same as WT mice kept under D/D conditions. A direct effect of the circadian clock on the mechanism(s) regulating birth timing was questionable, as the lighter average weight per KO fetus (0.6 g) versus WT fetus (0.7 g) on day 17.5 of pregnancy might have caused the delay in birth. The range of birth timing in KO D/D mice was the same as that of WT D/D mice, indicating that the circadian clock does not concentrate births at one time.  
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  ISSN 0093691X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2943  
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Author Sheehan, R.E.; Carovillano, R.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Characteristics of the Equatorward Auroral Boundary Near Midnight Determined from DMSP Images Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.  
  Volume 83 Issue A10 Pages 4749-4754  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The latitude of the equatorward auroral boundary near local midnight has been determined for 162 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) images in November‐December 1972. When grouped according to Kp and AE, these observations show approximate linear decreases in the average boundary latitude with increasing values of these magnetic indices. There appears also to be a slight diurnal variation in the boundary location. Mapping of the appropriate McIlwain injection boundaries to auroral latitudes shows good agreement with the average DMSP equatorward auroral boundary latitude. Similar analyses at 2000 and 2200 CGLT (corrected geomagnetic local time) using a different set of DMSP images yield similar results, with somewhat poorer agreement under quiet conditions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2386  
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