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Author Franklin, M.; Chau, K.; Cushing, L.J.; Johnston, J.
Title (up) Characterizing flaring from unconventional oil and gas operations in south Texas using satellite observations Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Science & Technology Abbreviated Journal Environ Sci Technol
Volume 53 Issue 4 Pages 2220-2228
Keywords Remote Sensing; petroleum; Texas; United States; VIIRS-DNB; Eagle Ford Shale; flaring; oil and gas
Abstract Over the past decade, increases in high-volume hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction in the United States have raised concerns with residents living near wells. Flaring, or the combustion of petroleum products into the open atmosphere, is a common practice associated with oil and gas exploration and production, and has been under-examined as a potential source of exposure. We leveraged data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Spectroradiometer (VIIRS) Nightfire satellite product to characterize the extent of flaring in the Eagle Ford Shale region of south Texas, one of the most productive in the nation. Spatiotemporal hierarchical clustering identified flaring sources, and a regression-based approach combining VIIRS information with reported estimates of vented and flared gas from the Railroad Commission of Texas enabled estimation of flared gas volume at each flare. We identified 43,887 distinct oil and gas flares in the study region from 2012-2016, with a peak in activity in 2014 and an estimated 4.5 billion cubic meters of total gas volume flared over the study period. A comparison with well permit data indicated the majority of flares were associated with oil-producing (82%) and horizontally-drilled (92%) wells. Of the 49 counties in the region, 5 accounted for 71% of the total flaring. Our results suggest flaring may be a significant environmental exposure in parts of this region.
Address Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles California 90032, United States; meredith.franklin(at)usc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ACS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-936X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30657671 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2175
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Author Bará, S.
Title (up) Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 473 Issue 3 Pages 4164-4173
Keywords Instrumentation; atmospheric effects; light pollution; numerical methods; photometry
Abstract A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist–Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec–2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson–Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.
Address 1Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2164
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Author Porcheret, K.; Wald, L.; Fritschi, L.; Gerkema, M.; Gordijn, M.; Merrrow, M.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Rock, D.; Sletten, T.L.; Warman, G.; Wulff, K.; Roenneberg, T.; Foster, R.G.
Title (up) Chronotype and environmental light exposure in a student population Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 35 Issue 10 Pages 1365-1374
Keywords Human Health
Abstract In humans and most other species, changes in the intensity and duration of light provide a critical set of signals for the synchronisation of the circadian system to the astronomical day. The timing of activity within the 24 h day defines an individual's chronotype, i.e. morning, intermediate or evening type. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between environmental light exposure, due to geographical location, on the chronotype of university students. Over 6 000 university students from cities in the Northern Hemisphere (Oxford, Munich and Groningen) and Southern Hemisphere (Perth, Melbourne and Auckland) completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. In parallel, light measures (daily irradiance, timing of sunrise and sunset) were compiled from satellite or ground stations at each of these locations. Our data shows that later mid-sleep point on free days (corrected for oversleep on weekends MFSsc) is associated with (i) residing further from the equator, (ii) a later sunset, (iii) spending more time outside and (iv) waking from sleep significantly after sunrise. However, surprisingly, MSFsc did not correlate with daily light intensity at the different geographical locations. Although these findings appear to contradict earlier studies suggesting that in the wider population increased light exposure is associated with an earlier chronotype, our findings are derived exclusively from a student population aged between 17 and 26 years. We therefore suggest that the age and occupation of our population increase the likelihood that these individuals will experience relatively little light exposure in the morning whilst encountering more light exposure later in the day, when light has a delaying effect upon the circadian system.
Address a Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute (SCNi), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29913073 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1962
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Author Murphy, B.A.
Title (up) Circadian and circannual regulation in the horse: Internal timing in an elite athlete Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Equine Veterinary Science
Volume 76 Issue Pages 14-24
Keywords Animals; Mammals; horses
Abstract Biological rhythms evolved to provide temporal coordination across all tissues and organs and allow synchronisation of physiology with predictable environmental cycles. Most important of these are circadian and circannual rhythms, primarily regulated via photoperiod signals from the retina. Understanding the nature of physiological rhythms in horses is crucially important for equine management. Predominantly, we have removed them from exposure to their natural environmental stimuli; the seasonally changing photoperiod, continuous foraging and feeding activity, social herd interactions and the continuous low intensity exercise of a grassland dweller. These have been replaced in many cases with confined indoor housing, regimental feeding and exercise times, social isolation and exposure to lighting that is often erratic and does not come close to mimicking the spectral composition of sunlight. We have further altered seasonal timing cues through the use of artificial lighting programs that impact reproductive behaviour, breeding efficiency and the development of youngstock. Understanding how these new environmental cues (some stronger, some weaker) impact the internal physiology of the horse in the context of the natural endogenous rhythms that evolved over millennia, is key to helping to improve equine health, welfare and performance, now and into the future. This review provides an overview of the field, highlights the recent discoveries related to biological timing in horses and discusses the implications that these findings may have for the production and management of the elite equine athlete.
Address Barbara A. Murphy, School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; Barbara.murphy(at)ucd.ie
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elseverier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0737-0806 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2257
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Author Jan Stenvers, D.; Scheer, F.A.J.L.; Schrauwen, P.; la Fleur, S.E.; Kalsbeek, A.
Title (up) Circadian clocks and insulin resistance Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Nature Reviews. Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Endocrinol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The circadian timing system consists of a central brain clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and various peripheral tissue clocks. The circadian timing system is responsible for the coordination of many daily processes, including the daily rhythm in human glucose metabolism. The central clock regulates food intake, energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity, and these actions are further fine-tuned by local peripheral clocks. For instance, the peripheral clock in the gut regulates glucose absorption, peripheral clocks in muscle, adipose tissue and liver regulate local insulin sensitivity, and the peripheral clock in the pancreas regulates insulin secretion. Misalignment between different components of the circadian timing system and daily rhythms of sleep-wake behaviour or food intake as a result of genetic, environmental or behavioural factors might be an important contributor to the development of insulin resistance. Specifically, clock gene mutations, exposure to artificial light-dark cycles, disturbed sleep, shift work and social jet lag are factors that might contribute to circadian disruption. Here, we review the physiological links between circadian clocks, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and present current evidence for a relationship between circadian disruption and insulin resistance. We conclude by proposing several strategies that aim to use chronobiological knowledge to improve human metabolic health.
Address Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN), Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), Amsterdam, Netherlands. a.kalsbeek@nin.knaw.nl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1759-5029 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30531917 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2133
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