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Author Wojnicki, I., Komnata, K., & Kotulski, L.
Title (up) Comparative Study of Road Lighting Efficiency in the Context of CEN/TR 13201 2004 and 2014 Lighting Standards and Dynamic Control Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 1-14
Keywords Economics; Energy; Lighting; Planning
Abstract This paper presents a comparative study of differences in energy consumption while applying 2004 and 2014 releases of the CEN/TR 13201 standard for lighting designs. Street lighting optimal design and its optimization is discussed. To provide a reliable comparison, optimal designs for a given representative set of streets were calculated. The optimization was performed by newly developed software. As a test bed, a set of streets was selected with varying physical and traffic characteristics. The energy consumption was measured on the same set of streets both statically, which assumed the same lighting levels throughout night, and with a dynamic control, which adjusted lighting based on traffic intensity. For experiments with the dynamic control, one year of traffic intensity data were used. The findings confirm increased economical impact of dynamic control for the 2014 standard, which results in significant energy saving.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2348
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Author Chen, J.; Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.; Oda, T.
Title (up) Comparing a global high-resolution downscaled fossil fuel CO2 emission dataset to local inventory-based estimates over 14 global cities Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Carbon Balance and Management Abbreviated Journal Carbon Balance Manag
Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 9
Keywords Remote Sensing; City CO2 emissions; Emission inventory; Fossil fuel CO2 emissions; In-boundary; Odiac
Abstract BACKGROUND: Compilation of emission inventories (EIs) for cities is a whole new challenge to assess the subnational climate mitigation effort under the Paris Climate Agreement. Some cities have started compiling EIs, often following a global community protocol. However, EIs are often difficult to systematically examine because of the ways they were compiled (data collection and emission calculation) and reported (sector definition and direct vs consumption). In addition, such EI estimates are not readily applicable to objective evaluation using modeling and observations due to the lack of spatial emission extents. City emission estimates used in the science community are often based on downscaled gridded EIs, while the accuracy of the downscaled emissions at city level is not fully assessed. RESULTS: This study attempts to assess the utility of the downscaled emissions at city level. We collected EIs from 14 major global cities and compare them to the estimates from a global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission data product (ODIAC) commonly used in the science research community. We made necessary adjustments to the estimates to make our comparison as reasonable as possible. We found that the two methods produce very close area-wide emission estimates for Shanghai and Delhi (< 10% difference), and reach good consistency in half of the cities examined (< 30% difference). The ODIAC dataset exhibits a much higher emission compared to inventory estimates in Cape Town (+ 148%), Sao Paulo (+ 43%) and Beijing (+ 40%), possibly related to poor correlation between nightlight intensity with human activity, such as the high-emission and low-lighting industrial parks in developing countries. On the other hand, ODIAC shows lower estimates in Manhattan (- 62%), New York City (- 45%), Washington D.C. (- 42%) and Toronto (- 33%), all located in North America, which may be attributable to an underestimation of residential emissions from heating in ODIAC's nightlight-based approach, and an overestimation of emission from ground transportation in registered vehicles statistics of inventory estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively good agreement suggests that the ODIAC data product could potentially be used as a first source for prior estimate of city-level CO2 emission, which is valuable for atmosphere CO2 inversion modeling and comparing with satellite CO2 observations. Our compilation of in-boundary emission estimates for 14 cities contributes towards establishing an accurate inventory in-boundary global city carbon emission dataset, necessary for accountable local climate mitigation policies in the future.
Address Goddard Earth Sciences Research and Technology, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1750-0680 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:32430547 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2929
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Author Owen, W. G., & Lopez, R. G.
Title (up) Comparison of Sole-source and Supplemental Lighting on Callus Formation and Initial Rhizogenesis of Gaura and Salvia Cuttings Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication HortScience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 54 Issue 4 Pages 684-691
Keywords Plants
Abstract Variability in outdoor daily temperatures and photosynthetic daily light integrals (DLIs) from early spring to late fall limits the ability of propagators to accurately control propagation environments to consistently callus, root, and yield compact herbaceous perennial rooted liners. We evaluated and compared the effects of sole-source lighting (SSL) delivered from red (R) and blue (B) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to supplemental lighting (SL) provided by high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps on herbaceous perennial cutting morphology, physiology, and growth during callusing and initial rhizogenesis. Cuttings of perennial sage (Salvia nemorosa L. ‘Lyrical Blues’) and wand flower (Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. and A. Gray ‘Siskiyou Pink’) were propagated in a walk-in growth chamber under multilayer SSL provided by LEDs with [R (660 nm)]:[B (460 nm)] light ratios (%) of 100:0 (R100:B0), 75:25 (R75:B25), 50:50 (R50:B50), or 0:100 (R0:B100) delivering 60 µmol·m−2·s–1 for 16 hours (total DLI of 3.4 mol·m−2·d−1). In a glass-glazed greenhouse (GH control), cuttings were propagated under ambient solar light and day-extension SL provided by HPS lamps delivering 40 µmol·m−2·s–1 to provide a 16-hour photoperiod (total DLI of 3.3 mol·m−2·d−1). At 10 days after sticking cuttings, callus diameter and rooting percentage were similar among all light-quality treatments. For instance, callus diameter, a measure of growth, of wand flower cuttings increased from an average 1.7 mm at stick (0 day) to a range of 2.7 to 2.9 mm at 10 days after sticking, regardless of lighting treatment. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was generally greater under SSL R75:B25 or R50:B50 than all other light-quality treatments. However, stem length of perennial sage and wand flower cuttings propagated under SSL R50:B50 at 10 days were 21% and 30% shorter and resulted in 50% and 8% greater root biomass, respectively, compared with those under SL. The herbaceous perennial cuttings propagated in this study under SSL R50:B50 were of similar quality or more compact compared with those under SL, indicating that callus induction and initial rooting can occur under LEDs in a multilayer SSL propagation system.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2346
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Author Chai, B.; Seto, K.C.
Title (up) Conceptualizing and characterizing micro-urbanization: A new perspective applied to Africa Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning
Volume 190 Issue Pages 103595
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) require sustainable urban development and management for better human life quality. Small urban settlements—those with fewer than 500,000 people—are home to 26.5% of the world’s population. Yet, relatively little research attention has been paid to understanding the structure and dynamics of these smaller cities. In this paper, we propose a new concept, micro-urbanization, to fill this knowledge gap, and develop a methodology to characterize and map it using dense remote sensing time series data and landscape pattern metrics. We define micro-urbanization as a process of urban land change that has five primary characteristics: small, patchy, far from main urban areas, with limited geographic connection with existing urban areas and low urban intensity. We apply the method to two rapidly urbanizing countries in Africa, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Results show that the methodology is capable of detecting micro-urbanization with relatively high spatial and temporal accuracy.
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ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2581
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Author Challéat, S.; Lapostolle, D.
Title (up) Concilier éclairage urbain et environnement nocturne : Les enjeux d’une controverse sociotechnique Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Natures Sciences Sociétés Abbreviated Journal Nat. Sci. Soc.
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 317-328
Keywords History; Energy; Planning; Regulation; Society
Abstract La question de l’éclairage urbain nocturne est posée publiquement de manière de plus en plus significative, d’abord aux États-Unis puis en Europe. Cantonnée à l’origine au domaine de l’astronomie, cette question pose problème dans différents secteurs : l’environnement, la santé, l’urbanisme, mais aussi et surtout l’énergie... En croisant une approche sociologique avec une approche géographique, les auteurs font le récit d’une controverse environnementale aboutissant, en France, à l’inscription de la notion de pollution lumineuse dans la loi Grenelle et questionnent sa dimension spatiale. Ils montrent les différentes logiques et interprétations, à l’œuvre autour de la distinction entre « pollution » et « nuisance » lumineuses, qui traversent les scènes de négociation sur les processus de normalisation et la mobilisation d’outils de zonage.
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Language French Summary Language French Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1240-1307 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1522
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