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Author Salat, H.; Smoreda, Z.; Schlapfer, M.
Title (up) A method to estimate population densities and electricity consumption from mobile phone data in developing countries Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages e0235224
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract High quality census data are not always available in developing countries. Instead, mobile phone data are becoming a popular proxy to evaluate the density, activity and social characteristics of a population. They offer additional advantages: they are updated in real-time, include mobility information and record visitors' activity. However, we show with the example of Senegal that the direct correlation between the average phone activity and both the population density and the nighttime lights intensity may be insufficiently high to provide an accurate representation of the situation. There are reasons to expect this, such as the heterogeneity of the market share or the particular granularity of the distribution of cell towers. In contrast, we present a method based on the daily, weekly and yearly phone activity curves and on the network characteristics of the mobile phone data, that allows to estimate more accurately such information without compromising people's privacy. This information can be vital for development and infrastructure planning. In particular, this method could help to reduce significantly the logistic costs of data collection in the particularly budget-constrained context of developing countries.
Address Future Cities Laboratory, Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore, Singapore
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32603345 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3030
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Author Cho, M., Park, R., Yoon, J., Choi, Y., Jeong, J. I., Labzovskii, L., Fu, J. S., Huang, K., Jeong, S., & Kim, B.
Title (up) A missing component of Arctic warming: Black carbon from gas flaring Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Research Letters Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Gas flaring during oil extraction over the Arctic region is the primary source of warming-inducing aerosols (e.g., black carbon (BC)) with a strong potential to affect regional climate change. Despite continual BC emissions near the Arctic Ocean via gas flaring, the climatic impacts of BC related to gas flaring remain uncertain. Here, we present simulations of potential gas flaring using an earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics that to show that increases in BC from gas flaring can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming. BC emissions from gas flaring over high latitudes contribute to locally confined warming over the source region, especially during the Arctic spring through BC-induced local albedo reduction. This local warming invokes remote and temporally lagging sea-ice melting feedback processes over the Arctic Ocean during winter. Our findings imply that a regional change in anthropogenic aerosol forcing is capable of changing Arctic temperatures in regions far from the aerosol source via time-lagged, sea-ice-related Arctic physical processes. We suggest that both energy consumption and production processes can increase Arctic warming.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2645
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Author Pracki, P.; Skarżyński, K.
Title (up) A Multi-Criteria Assessment Procedure for Outdoor Lighting at the Design Stage Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 1330
Keywords Lighting
Abstract This paper presents an attempt at a unified approach for the assessment of outdoor lighting solutions at the design stage. First of all, the lighting criteria for different types of outdoor lighting installations have been carefully described. Despite the differences in criteria, it is possible to find a common ground for the assessment of lighting solutions at the design stage. This is based on the need for the assessment of lighting solutions to be included in the requirements for the luminous environment, light pollution, and energy efficiency. The review and analysis of the standards and reports allows an experimental procedure to be created, the main aim of which is to find the best and most sustainable lighting solution for any outdoor situation. The procedure was tested by the example of an analysis of parking lot lighting solutions. In the case analyzed, 120 solutions were considered. It appeared that, in only 65 cases were the requirements referring to both lighting condition and light pollution met. Finally, based on the lighting energy efficiency assessment, ten solutions were selected as the most suitable. Furthermore, only one solution out of the ten was the most beneficial, taking into account the extra criterion of basic economic cost. The case study confirms that the assessment procedure allows the most beneficial solution to be selected, taking into account the luminous environment, as well as light pollution and energy efficiency criteria. The proposed multi-criteria assessment procedure may be used as a valuable tool by lighting designers to select the most beneficial solution in order to meet the needs of safety, visual efficiency, and comfort, as well as taking into account light pollution and energy efficiency restrictions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2869
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Author Masana, E.; Carrasco, J.M.; Bará, S.; Ribas, S.J.
Title (up) A multiband map of the natural night sky brightness including Gaia and Hipparcos integrated starlight Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 501 Issue 4 Pages 5443-5456
Keywords Instrumentation; night sky brightness; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; photometers; light pollution; site testing
Abstract The natural night sky brightness is a relevant input for monitoring the light pollution evolution at observatory sites, by subtracting it from the overall sky brightness determined by direct measurements. It is also instrumental for assessing the expected darkness of the pristine night skies. The natural brightness of the night sky is determined by the sum of the spectral radiances coming from astrophysical sources, including zodiacal light, and the atmospheric airglow. The resulting radiance is modified by absorption and scattering before it reaches the observer. Therefore, the natural night sky brightness is a function of the location, time, and atmospheric conditions. We present in this work the GAia Map of the Brightness Of the Natural Sky (GAMBONS), a model to map the natural night brightness of the sky in cloudless and moonless nights. Unlike previous maps, GAMBONS is based on the extra-atmospheric star radiance obtained from the Gaia catalogue. The Gaia-Data Release 2 (DR2) archive compiles astrometric and photometric information for more than 1.6 billion stars up to G = 21 mag. For the brightest stars, not included in Gaia-DR2, we have used the Hipparcos catalogue instead. After adding up to the star radiance the contributions of the diffuse galactic and extragalactic light, zodiacal light and airglow, and taking into account the effects of atmospheric attenuation and scattering, the radiance detected by ground-based observers can be estimated. This methodology can be applied to any photometric band, if appropriate transformations from the Gaia bands are available. In particular, we present the expected sky brightness for V (Johnson), and visual photopic and scotopic passbands.
Address Departament Física Quàntica i Astrofìsica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC-UB-IEEC), C Martí Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain; emasana ( at ) fqa.ub.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3299
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Author Ma, X.; Li, C.; Tong, X.; Liu, S.
Title (up) A New Fusion Approach for Extracting Urban Built-up Areas from Multisource Remotely Sensed Data Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 21 Pages 2516
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Recent advances in the fusion technology of remotely sensed data have led to an increased availability of extracted urban information from multiple spatial resolutions and multi-temporal acquisitions. Despite the existing extraction methods, there remains the challenging task of fully exploiting the characteristics of multisource remote sensing data, each of which has its own advantages. In this paper, a new fusion approach for accurately extracting urban built-up areas based on the use of multisource remotely sensed data, i.e., the DMSP-OLS nighttime light data, the MODIS land cover product (MCD12Q1) and Landsat 7 ETM+ images, was proposed. The proposed method mainly consists of two components: (1) the multi-level data fusion, including the initial sample selection, unified pixel resolution and feature weighted calculation at the feature level, as well as pixel attribution determination at decision level; and (2) the optimized sample selection with multi-factor constraints, which indicates that an iterative optimization with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), and the bare soil index (BSI), along with the sample training of the support vector machine (SVM) and the extraction of urban built-up areas, produces results with high credibility. Nine Chinese provincial capitals along the Silk Road Economic Belt, such as Chengdu, Chongqing, Kunming, Xining, and Nanning, were selected to test the proposed method with data from 2001 to 2010. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional threshold dichotomy and the improved neighborhood focal statistics (NFS) method, the following could be concluded. (1) The proposed approach achieved high accuracy and eliminated natural elements to a great extent while obtaining extraction results very consistent to those of the more precise improved NFS approach at a fine scale. The average overall accuracy (OA) and average Kappa values of the extracted urban built-up areas were 95% and 0.83, respectively. (2) The proposed method not only identified the characteristics of the urban built-up area from the nighttime light data and other daylight images at the feature level but also optimized the samples of the urban built-up area category at the decision level, making it possible to provide valuable information for urban planning, construction, and management with high accuracy.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2731
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