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Author Davoudian, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Background lighting clutters: how do they affect visual saliency of urban objects? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation  
  Volume 5 Issue 1-2 Pages 95-103  
  Keywords Vision  
  Abstract The current study aims to create some general guidance for designers to better understand the impact of background lighting in their design and as a result minimize its effect on the visual saliency of urban objects. There are few studies about how lighting clutters can affect and decrease the visual saliency of illuminated urban objects at night. Lack of information in this area has resulted in increasing luminance to be recognized as one of the main tools to enhance the saliency of urban objects at night. To address this matter a study was performed to investigate the effect of proximity of lighting clutters on visual saliency of urban objects. A forced choice pair comparison method was employed, in which two test images of an urban object in different conditions of luminance contrast and proximity of light patterns were compared. Test participants reported in which image the target appeared more salient. Results show there is a progressive increase in saliency value by increasing the gap between the target and the background lighting when the luminance contrast of the target is three or higher. However, the critical area around the object with the highest effect lies between 0.5° and 1° visual angle. Removing light patterns beyond that point creates negligible effect. The findings of this study could inform development of future models of visual recognition in the road environment, models which can address the important effects of environmental context in addition to photometric variables (luminance and contrast) that are the only factors considered in traditional models of ‘Visibility Level.’  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2165-0349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2527  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, Paul url  openurl
  Title (up) Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20  
  Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions  
  Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research  
  Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862  
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Author Agnew, J.; Gillespie, T.W.; Gonzalez, J.; Min, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Baghdad Nights: Evaluating the US Military ‘Surge’ Using Nighttime Light Signatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Environment and Planning A Abbreviated Journal Environ Plan A  
  Volume 40 Issue 10 Pages 2285-2295  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Commentary  
  Abstract  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0308-518X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2028  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Obayashi, K.; Yamagami, Y.; Kurumatani, N.; Saeki, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Bedroom lighting environment and incident diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal study of the HEIJO-KYO cohort Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine  
  Volume 65 Issue Pages 1-3  
  Keywords Human Health; Metabolic disorders; diabetes; geriatrics  
  Abstract Objectives

Light information received by the brain influences human circadian timing and metabolism; low-level light at night (LAN) significantly increased body mass and led to prediabetes in mice. We hypothesized that LAN exposure increases the diabetes risk in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a longitudinal association between LAN exposure and the incidence of diabetes in a general population.

Methods

In our prospective cohort study, bedroom light intensity was measured at 1-min intervals in 678 elderly participants without diabetes at baseline. The average light intensity recorded between bedtimes and rise times over two consecutive nights was used in the analysis.

Results

During follow-up (median, 42 months), 19 of the 678 participants (mean age, 70.6 years) developed diabetes. Poisson regression models revealed that the incidence rate for diabetes was significantly higher in the LAN group (average ≥5 lux, N = 128) than the dark group (average <5 lux, N = 550) (incidence rate ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55–9.05; p=0.003). Further propensity score adjustments in relation to LAN produced consistent results (incidence rate ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.38–7.35; p=0.007). When the cut-off value of LAN was decreased to 3 lux, the relationship remained significant (incidence rate ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.19–6.33; p=0.018).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that LAN exposure increases the incidence of diabetes in a general elderly population. Further research involving a large cohort with new-onset diabetes is warranted to elucidate these findings.
 
  Address Department of Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashiharashi, Nara, 634-8521, Japan; obayashi(at)naramed-u.ac.jp  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2605  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marder, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Being Dumped Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Humanities Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 180-193  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract In this article, Michael Marder interprets the “toxic flood” we are living or dying through as a global dump. On his reading, multiple levels of existence—from the psychic to the physiological, from the environmental-elemental to the planetary—are being converted into a dump, a massive and still growing hodgepodge of industrial and consumer by-products and emissions; shards of metaphysical ideas and theological dreams; radioactive materials; light, sound, and other modes of sensory pollution; pesticides and herbicides; and so forth. Toxicity targets our bodily tissues, senses, and minds, not to mention our worlds, without individuating us in this targeting, as indifferent and random as the global dump that nourishes it. Disrupting metabolism at every scrambled register of existence, it waxes into what Marder calls “ontological toxicity,” the mangled parts of the dump that do not pass through and out of being and, in not passing, warrant the annihilation, the rapid passing away, of all else. In an ontologically toxic state, the meaning of being is being dumped.  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2503  
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