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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles
Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783
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Author Shinobu Yasuo, Ayaka Iwamoto, Sang-il Lee, Shotaro Ochiai, Rina Hitachi, Satomi Shibata, Nobuo Uotsu, Chie Tarumizu, Sayuri Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shigekazu Higuchi
Title L-Serine Enhances Light-Induced Circadian Phase Resetting in Mice and Humans Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Nutrition Abbreviated Journal
Volume 147 Issue 12 Pages 2347-2355
Keywords Animals; Human Health
Abstract Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.

Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.

Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 L-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before L-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed. In addition, the effect of L-serine on the light-induced phase advance was investigated in healthy male students (mean ± SD age 22.2 ± 1.8 y) by using dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) determined by saliva samples as an index of the circadian phase.

Results: L-Serine administration enhanced light-induced phase shifts in mice (1.86-fold; P < 0.05). Both L-serine and its metabolite D-serine, a coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, exerted this effect, but D-serine concentrations in the hypothalamus did not increase after L-serine administration. The effect of L-serine was blocked by picrotoxin, an antagonist of &#947;-aminobutyric acid A receptors, but not by MK801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors. L-Serine administration altered the long-term expression patterns of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. After advancing the light-dark cycle by 6 h, L-serine administration slightly accelerated re-entrainment to the shifted cycle. In humans, L-serine ingestion before bedtime induced significantly larger phase advances of DLMO after bright-light exposure during the morning (means ± SEMs—L-serine: 25.9 ± 6.6 min; placebo: 12.1 ± 7.0 min; P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results suggest that L-serine enhances light-induced phase resetting in mice and humans, and it may be useful for treating circadian disturbances.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1784
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Author Kozaki, Tomoaki; Taketomi, Ryunosuke; Hidaka ,Yuki; Ida, Nagisa; Yasuda, Takeo
Title Preventive Effect of Morning Bluish LED Light on Light-induced Melatonin Suppression at Night Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Science and Technology in Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue Pages 206-210
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Bright nocturnal light has been known to suppress melatonin secretion. However, bright light exposure during daytime might reduce light-induced melatonin suppression (LIMS) at night. This study aims to evaluate the effect of high correlated color temperature LED light during daytime on LIMS. Male participants were exposed to different light conditions for 3 h in the morning (09:00â??12:00). The light conditions were dim light (<10 lx), 125 lx high correlated color temperature (CCT) LED light, and 250 lx high CCT LED light. The subjects were then exposed to bright light (white light, 300 lx) for 1.5 h at night (01:00â??02:30). Saliva samples were taken before (01:00) and after (02:30) exposure for evaluation of melatonin secretion. There were no significant differences in melatonin secretion before and after night-time light exposure on the 125 lx and 250 lx morning light conditions. Since these light intensities were almost equal to those in our previous study, the high CCT LED light might be appropriate for certain work places (e.g., hospitals and underground spaces), contributing to the reduction of our health risk and also saving energy.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1785
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Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R.
Title Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186
Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review
Abstract This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790
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Author Nelson, R.J.; DeVries, A.C.
Title Medical Hypothesis: Light at Night Is a Factor Worth Considering in Critical Care Units Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Advances in Integrative Medicine Abbreviated Journal Advances in Integrative Medicine
Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 115-120
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Exposure to light at night is not an innocuous consequence of modernization. There are compelling data linking long-term exposure to occupational and environmental light at night with serious health conditions, including heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. However, far less is known about the physiological and behavioral effects of acute exposure to light at night. Among healthy volunteers, acute night-time light exposure increases systolic blood pressure and inflammatory markers in the blood, and impairs glucose regulation. Whether critically ill patients in a hospital setting experience the same physiological shifts in response to evening light exposure is not known. This paper reviews the available data on light at night effects on health and wellbeing, and argues that the data are sufficiently compelling to warrant studies of how lighting in intensive care units may be influencing patient recovery.
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ISSN 2212-9588 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1794
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