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Author Simons, K. S., van den Boogaard, M., & de Jager, C. P. C.
Title Impact of intensive care unit light and noise exposure on critically ill patients Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Neth j crit care Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Recently, the importance of the ICU environment as a potential modifiable factor for improvement of patient care has become more clear. In this review, we describe the effects of light and noise exposure on ICU patients. In ICU patients circadian rhythms and sleep are severely disturbed, which may increase the risk of delirium. Realignment of circadian rhythmicity by means of artificial light therapy has not been shown to reduce the incidence or duration of delirium. Prudent use of nighttime light may be a first step in improvement of patient sleep. Eye masks appear to improve sleep although they are only applicable for a selected group of patients. Noise levels in the ICU are above recommended standards. Negative effects include disturbances of sleep, as often encountered in ICU patients. Staff activity and talking contribute substantially to the total acoustic energy, providing opportunities to adapt behaviour and/or workflow in order to reduce noise pollution.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2624
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Author Deppe, L.; Rowley, O.; Rowe, L.K.; Shi, N.; McArthur, N.; Gooday, O.; Goldstien, S.J.
Title Investigation of fallout events in Hutton’s shearwaters (Puffinus huttoni) associated with artificial lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Notornis Abbreviated Journal
Volume 64 Issue 4 Pages 181-191
Keywords Animals
Abstract The risk of disorientation by artificial lights and subsequent ‘fallout’ has become a widely recognised issue for nocturnal procellariiform species. Using data from community-based rescue campaigns and systematic research, we assessed the characteristics of fallout events observed in fledglings of the threatened New Zealand endemic Hutton’s shearwater (Puffinus huttoni) or Kaikōura tītī. Despite strong annual variation in observed fallout numbers, the proportion of annually produced fledglings collected as ‘fallout birds’ remained below 1% each year. Among those, more than 80% survived due to community rescue efforts. Fallout was found to increase significantly during new moon, while weather effects remained inconclusive. Most fallout occurred within brightly lit areas of Kaikōura township, particularly along its coastal roads. High light source densities and high wattage lights appeared to be influential in some areas but could only partly explain the spatial distribution of fallout at this small scale.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2102
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Author Donker, D. W.
Title Light and noise nuisance … deciphered yet underappreciated ‘Rosetta Stone’ of the modern ICU? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Netherlands Journal of Critical Care Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 144
Keywords Commentary; Human Health; hospitals; Department of Intensive Care Unit; health care
Abstract In everyday life, we take for granted that public authorities protect us from an unhealthy environment, including light and noise pollution. In recent years, about 1200 kilometres of noise barriers have been built alongside Dutch highways with costs approaching a billion euros. Also, more than 50 cities in the Netherlands have successfully taken initiatives to reduce the artificial light pollution in the past six years, as our country is well known to rank among the literally most illuminated ones in the world. These investments seem to be reasonable as adverse health effects from environmental light and noise pollution have long and widely been recognised. How these potentially detrimental effects of artificial light and distressing noise acting on the human body translate into the best possible care that we strive to provide within our modern ICU environment is an area of increasing professional awareness, interest and research. Yet, we all realise that not only light and noise, but numerous physical and psychological stressors may negatively affect individual ICU patients. Also, the impact of these factors may vary considerably among individuals, which makes it even more difficult for caregivers to prioritise among apparently competing aspects of care in their daily practice. A comprehensive, narrative review by Koen Simons and colleagues in this issue of the Netherlands Journal of Critical Care provides us with up-to-date information on the ‘impact of intensive care unit light and noise exposure on critically ill patients’.Here, we gain more insights and learn how a multimodal approach to our ICU environment may aid to optimise light exposure and reduce noise. This may not only improve our patients’ sleep and general wellbeing, but also

reduce the incidence of delirium. The latter seems especially relevant since the pharmacological prevention of delirium has repeatedly been shown to be disappointing, as recently confirmed again in a large Dutch trial. All this evidence sets the stage to further promote nonpharmacological interventions in the ICU to prevent delirium. Therefore, we should do our best to limit controllable stressors in the ICU in order to improve patient comfort and hopefully enhance the individual prognosis. As our traditional focus on the medical and technical aspects of critical care has led us to asymptotically reach current therapeutic optima; human factors and soft skills are no longer far in the horizon of the modern ICU.
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Publisher NJCC Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2625
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Author Zielińska-Dąbkowska, K.
Title Home Sweet Home. Connecting the dots for healthy evening residential illumination Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication ARC Lighting In Architecture Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 55-60
Keywords Lighting; Human Health
Abstract During the twentieth century, lighting designers would commonly use incandescent light sources for residential homes as they provided a visual comfort, with high quality colour rendering properties, along with relaxing ambient atmosphere. Unfortunately, it’s now difficult to buy incandescent light sources because they have been banned in many countries (https://bit.ly/2GwN2Wv). This article addresses some of the challenges in regards to health, brought about by the changeover to new LEDs and other related technologies, and tries to offer some context on how to keep up with these rapid transformations. While we know it’s necessary to limit blue-rich light at night (as it prevents melatonin production and impaires nocturnal sleep), and that it’s important to maximise exposure to the blue wavelength of light in the morning (to trigger circadian timing, increase alertness), there are other issues that are misunderstood and often ignored. This includes flicker from LEDs and electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which can be produced by smart home lighting technology.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2726
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kómar, L.
Title A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 458 Issue 1 Pages 438-448
Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; artificial light; numerical modeling; GIS-based modeling; light pollution
Abstract Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; kocifaj(at)savba.sk
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Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1361
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