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Author Kocifaj, M.; Kómar, L.
Title A role of aerosol particles in forming urban skyglow and skyglow from distant cities Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 458 Issue 1 Pages 438-448
Keywords Skyglow; scattering; atmospheric effects; artificial light; numerical modeling; GIS-based modeling; light pollution
Abstract Aerosol particles may represent the largest uncertainty about skyglow change in many locations under clear sky conditions. This is because aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and influence the ground-reaching radiation in different ways depending on their concentrations, origins, shapes, sizes, and compositions. Large particles tend to scatter in Fraunhofer diffraction regime, while small particles can be treated in terms of Rayleigh formalism. However, the role of particle microphysics in forming the skyglow still remains poorly quantified. We have shown in this paper that the chemistry is somehow important for backscattering from large particles that otherwise work as efficient attenuators of light pollution if composed of absorbing materials. The contribution of large particles to the urban skyglow diminishes as they become more spherical in shape. The intensity of backscattering from non-absorbing particles is more-or-less linearly decreasing function of particle radius even if number size distribution is inversely proportional to the fourth power of particle radius. This is due to single particle backscattering that generally increases steeply as the particle radius approaches large values. Forward scattering depends on the particle shape but is independent of the material composition, thus allowing for a simplistic analytical model of skyglow from distant cities. The model we have developed is based on mean value theorem for integrals and incorporates the parametrizable Garstang's emission pattern, intensity decay along optical beam path, and near-forward scattering in an atmospheric environment. Such model can be used by modellers and experimentalists for rapid estimation of skyglow from distant light sources.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská Road 9, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic; kocifaj(at)savba.sk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1361
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Author Torres-Farfan, C.; Mendez, N.; Ehrefeld, P.; Seron-Ferre, M.
Title In utero circadian changes; facing light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Current Opinion in Physiology Abbreviated Journal Current Opinion in Physiology
Volume 13 Issue Pages 128-134
Keywords Human Health; Review; In Utero; Pregnancy; Circadian Rhythm
Abstract Regardless of the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved, maternal fetal circadian systems interactions are recognized as crucial crosstalk for fetal development, and in turn, it may be a key factor determining fitting health in adulthood. However, in the last 100 years, life on the planet has altered the natural light-dark cycle by increasing light at night inducing disorganization of the circadian system, i.e. chronodisruption, including perturbation of the melatonin circadian rhythm by decreasing its nocturnal peak. The reduction in melatonin is associated with gradual losses in antioxidant protection, immunological and anti-inflammatory effects and as stated by WHO, the lack of nocturnal peak of melatonin is a deleterious signal that may induce chronic disease and cancer. Collectively the current review provides evidence about the role played by maternal circadian rhythms in fetal development and the impact of fetal-maternal desynchronization in the health and diseases of the offspring.
Address Laboratory of Developmental Chronobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; claudia.torres(at)uach.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsever Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2468-8673 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2761
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Author Ranzoni, J.; Giuliani, G.; Huber, L.; Ray, N.
Title Modelling the nocturnal ecological continuum of the State of Geneva, Switzerland, based on high-resolution nighttime imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment
Volume 16 Issue Pages 100268
Keywords Remote Sensing; Ecology; Switzerland; Europe; orthophotography; viewshed analysis
Abstract The increase of artificial light in recent decades has led to a general awareness of the harmful consequences of light pollution on biodiversity. The artificial light is however rarely taken into account in the principles of developing ecological networks. There is currently no standardized method for integrating this darkness factor into ecological network modeling. We propose a methodology for the identification of the nocturnal continuum through an approach based on the automated extraction of light sources from nocturnal orthophotography and the modeling of their visibility within a territory. The model is applied to the transboundary region of the Geneva basin in Switzerland and allows for the integration of the darkness factor into the existing ecological networks. Although the analysis does not consider metric lighting data, a viewshed analysis allows for a first large-scale mapping of the nighttime continuum and highlights the areas benefiting from very low light pollution.
Address University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Route de Presinge 150, 1254, Jussy, Switzerland; jessica.ranzoni(at)hesge.ch
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2352-9385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2687
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Author Marx, A.; Ziegler Rogers, M.
Title Analysis of Panamanian DMSP/OLS nightlights corroborates suspicions of inaccurate fiscal data: A natural experiment examining the accuracy of GDP data Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment
Volume 8 Issue Pages 99-104
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Governments have incentives to misreport their economic productivity to advance their political goals. These incentives have long been understood, but the validity of government data has been difficult to estimate in the absence of viable external estimates. Using historic Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System nightlights imagery we corroborate reports that Panama's government data has been increasingly politicised since the handover of the Panama Canal on 31 December 1999. The Canal Handover represents a “natural experiment” in which the production of government data changed in Panama for reasons separate from the desire to manipulate that data. The amount of light a country produces at night, known as nightlight production, has been shown to strongly correlate with GDP. Using subnational Panamanian nightlight production from 1996 to 2012, we detect a significant divergence between the relationship of subnational reported GDP and nightlights before the Canal handover (when the U.S.A. was very involved in their statistical agencies) and the correlation after the handover (with no U.S. involvement). Our results indicate that between 2000 and 2012, Panama reported approximately 19% more GDP than what was expected by their nightlight production from 2000 to 2012, or a total of around 40 billion U.S. dollars. Our results suggest governments may engage in political manipulation of government statistics to improve the appearance of government performance. While indirect data can never definitely confirm economic phenomena, this analysis presents a unique research design and application of historic satellite imagery to corroborate reports of GDP misreporting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2352-9385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2479
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Author Kalousová, L.; Xiao, B.; Burgard, S.A.
Title Material hardship and sleep: results from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 113-127
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep; sleep inequality; Society; sleep outcomes
Abstract Objective

Sleep is unequally distributed in the US population. People with low socioeconomic status report worse quality and shorter sleep than people with high socioeconomic status. Past research hypothesized that a potential reason for this link could be exposure to material hardship. This study examines the associations between several material hardships and sleep outcomes.

Methods

We use population-representative cross-sectional data (n = 730) from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study collected in 2013 and examine the associations between 6 indicators of material hardship (employment instability, financial problems, housing instability, food insecurity, forgone medical care, and the total number of material hardships reported) and 3 sleep outcomes (short sleep, sleep problems, and nonrestorative sleep). We build multivariable logistic regression models controlling for respondents’ characteristics and light pollution near their residence.

Results

In unadjusted models, all material hardships were associated with negative sleep outcomes. In adjusted models, forgone medical care was a statistically significant predictor of nonrestorative sleep (average marginal effect 0.16), as was employment instability (average marginal effect 0.12). The probability of sleep problems and nonrestorative sleep increased with a greater number of hardships overall (average marginal effects of .02 and .05, respectively). We found marginally statistically significant positive associations between food insecurity and short sleep and sleep problems.

Conclusions

This study finds that, except when considering foregone medical care, employment instability, and total count of material hardships, associations between material hardship and negative sleep outcomes are not statistically significant after adjusting for a robust set of sociodemographic and health characteristics.
Address Nuffield College, 1 New Rd, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom; lucie.kalousova(at)nuffield.ox.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2352-7218 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2180
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