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Author Kim, K.‐N.; Sin, U.‐C.; Jo, Y.‐C.; Huang, Z.‐J.; Hassan, A.; Huang, Q.‐Y.; Lei, C.‐L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of green light at night on Juvenile hormone in the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Physiological Entomology Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Entomol.  
  Volume 44 Issue 3-4 Pages 245-251  
  Keywords Animals; armyworm; Mythimna separata; Insects; Asia; green light  
  Abstract The oriental armyworm Mythimna separata is an agricultural insect pest in Eastern Asia. Mythimna separata moths have a high phototactic response to green (520 nm) light. The biological characteristics of insects living under light of a specific wavelength at night can change and, accordingly, Juvenile hormone (JH) levels may be influenced by this light. The present study evaluates changes in the total JH levels at different developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) of M. separata reared under green light with different exposure periods at night (or dark period). The results show that, when the exposure time per day of the green light at night is extended, the JH levels in the final‐instar larvae (22 days) and older age pupae (8 days) are significantly reduced, and the JH levels in earlier age pupae (4 days) and adults (3, 6 and 9 days) are significantly increased, compared with groups not exposed to green light. Additionally, the JH level of male moths significantly differs from that of the female moths. We suggest that the JH level of M. separata insects could be regulated by the green light at night (or dark period). The findings of the present study will help to explain the relationship between the light environment and biological characteristics in nocturnal moths.  
  Address Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; ioir(at)mail.hzau.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0307-6962 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2596  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do brighter, whiter street lights improve road safety? Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance  
  Volume 16 Issue 5 Pages 8-9  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Statistics  
  Abstract Would a billion‐dollar investment in improved street lighting make Australian roads safer at night? Paul Marchant finds the evidence wanting  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1740-9705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2686  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Secondi, J.; Davranche, A.; Théry, M.; Mondy, N.; Lengagne, T.; Isaac, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr  
  Volume in press Issue Pages geb.13037  
  Keywords Ecology; biodiversity; Review  
  Abstract Aim

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted to fill this knowledge gap in order to contribute to the elaboration of a biogeographical framework for the study of ALAN at the global scale.

Location

Global.

Time period

Current and next decades.

Methods

We analysed the latitudinal variation in ALAN and focused on environmental factors that vary with latitude but that have been overlooked. We reviewed biological traits that exhibit latitudinal variation and depend on light and photoperiod and compiled information about the predicted changes in human demography and road networks across different world regions.

Results

Cloud cover amplifies ALAN far away from urbanized areas. Because of the higher frequency of overcast sky nights, exposure effects may be stronger both at high latitudes and across a large fraction of the intertropical zone, although at different times of the year. Intertropical biomes host the largest fraction of global biodiversity. Although currently they are not the most exposed to ALAN, their human populations are growing, and urbanized areas and road networks are expanding. Hence, ALAN could have strong ecological consequences, with cloud cover as an aggravating factor.

Perspectives

Knowledge gaps currently limit our ability to predict the effects of ALAN in different biomes. Therefore, it will be important to start investigating the consequences of this novel environmental factor across the globe, in order to develop a relevant theoretical framework.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Wiley Thesis  
  Publisher English Place of Publication English Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2758  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Merckx, T.; Van Dyck, H.; Isaac, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urbanization‐driven homogenization is more pronounced and happens at wider spatial scales in nocturnal and mobile flying insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Abbreviated Journal Global Ecol Biogeogr  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 1440-1455  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Aim

We test whether urbanization drives biotic homogenization. We hypothesize that declines in abundance and species diversity of aerial insects are exacerbated by the urbanization‐driven loss of species with low habitat generalism, mobility and warm‐adaptedness. We predict this homogenization to be more pronounced for nocturnal taxa, and at wider scales for mobile taxa.

Location

Belgium.

Time period

Summers 2014–2015.

Major taxa studied

Lepidoptera.

Methods

We compare communities along urbanization gradients using a shared, replicated and nested sampling design, in which butterflies were counted within 81 grassland and macro‐moths light‐trapped in 12 woodland sites. We quantify taxonomic and functional community composition, the latter via community‐weighted means and variation of species‐specific traits related to specialization, mobility and thermophily. Using linear regression models, variables are analysed in relation to site‐specific urbanization values quantified at seven scales (50–3,200 m radii). At best‐fitting scales, we test for taxonomic homogenization.

Results

With increasing urbanization, abundance, species richness and Shannon diversity severely declined, with butterfly and macro‐moth declines due to local‐ versus landscape‐scale urbanization (200 vs. 800–3,200 m radii, respectively). While taxonomic homogenization was absent for butterflies, urban macro‐moth communities displayed higher nestedness than non‐urban communities. Overall, communities showed mean shifts towards generalist, mobile and thermophilous species, displaying trait convergence too. These functional trait models consistently fit best with urbanization quantified at local scales (100–200 m radii) for butterfly communities, and at local to wider landscape scales (200–800 m radii) for macro‐moth communities.

Main conclusions

Urban communities display functional homogenization that follows urbanization at scales linked to taxon‐specific mobility. Light pollution may explain why homogenization was more pronounced for the nocturnal taxon. We discuss that urbanization is likely to impact flying insect communities across the globe, but also that impacts on their ecosystem functions and services could be mitigated via multi‐scale implementation of urban green infrastructure.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1466-822X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2588  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tan, M.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Why do nocturnal grasshoppers and katydids “salute” to flash photography? Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Entomological Science Abbreviated Journal Entomological Science  
  Volume 22 Issue 2 Pages 216-219  
  Keywords Animals; Insects; grasshoppers; katydids; orthoptera  
  Abstract Nocturnal animals can be sensitive to powerful light from the environment. Anthropogenically induced perturbation to natural light regimes, including ecological light pollution and flash photography, can have wide‐reaching implications on the ecology and behavior. Ecological ramifications of strong lights were traditionally focused on vertebrates although there is now more focus on invertebrates. Nonetheless, there are still unanswered questions on visual ecology and evolution, particularly on individual‐level effects and of tropical species. Specifically, how invertebrate individuals react to strong light is generally undocumented. Based on opportunistic surveys around Southeast Asia, orthopterans, spotted using concentrated torchlight and exposed to sudden strong light intensity during flash macrophotography, were observed to screen themselves by positioning their foreleg over the dorsum of the compound eye. This resembled the orthopteran “saluting” to the camera. These observations provided empirical evidence of how high intensity light can unsettle orthopterans and other insects and further ecological and evolutionary hypotheses and questions can be raised to understand the effect of light pollution.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1343-8786 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2324  
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