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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution at Mount Wilson and at Palomar in 1931-32 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 122 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract I present a short summary of an unpublished letter by Joel Stebbins on light pollution at Mount Wilson Observatory and on Palmar Mountain in 1931-32. I analyzed his results and show that the light emission per capita in 1932 – o was about 3*1*10^17 photons s^-1 in the blue region, equivalent to about 220 lumens per head in the visual region. These my be compared with about 1*4*10^18 photons s^-1 in the blue region and about 1000 lumens per head in the visual region for California cities in 1970.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2622  
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Author Garstang, R. H. url  openurl
  Title Limiting visual magnitude and night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomia Italiana Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 71 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract We review the theory of visual thresholds and applications to the limiting magnitude of a telescope and of the eyes, based on Schaefers's model with minor improvements. We apply out formulation to the Yerkes Observatory refractor and to naked eye observations at Mount Wilson Observatory. We reanalyze Bowen's telescopic observations at Mount Wilson by his approximate method and by our more elaborate theory. An extension of his method leads to a determination of the night sky brightness of the visual activity of the observer is assumed to be average. Our more elaborate method allows a determination of the sky brightness, the visual acuity of the observer, and the average seeing during the observations.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2623  
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Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 52-66  
  Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain  
  Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.  
  Address Dept. Astrof´ısica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323  
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Author Zangeneh, P.; Hamledari, H.; McCabe, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying Remoteness for Risk and Resilience Assessment Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Comput. Civ. Eng.  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 04020026  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Remoteness has a crucial role in risk assessments of megaprojects, resilience assessments of communities and infrastructure, and a wide range of public policymaking. The existing measures of remoteness require an extensive amount of population census and of road and infrastructure network data, and often are limited to narrow scopes. This paper presents a methodology to quantify remoteness using nighttime satellite imagery. The light clusters of nighttime satellite imagery are direct yet unintended consequences of human settled populations and urbanization; therefore, the absence of illuminated clusters is considered as evidence of remoteness. The proposed nighttime remoteness index (NIRI) conceptualizes the remoteness based on the distribution of nighttime lights within radii of up to 1,000 km. A predictive model was created using machine learning techniques such as multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machines regressions to establish a reliable and accurate link between nighttime lights and the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). The model was used to establish NIRI for the United States and Canada, and in different years. The index was compared with the Canadian remoteness indexes published by Statistics Canada.  
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  ISSN 0887-3801 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2937  
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Author Lazar, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shedding Light on the Global Distribution of Economic Activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The Open Geography Journal Abbreviated Journal Togeogj  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 147-160  
  Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Collection of data on economic variables, especially sub-national income levels, is problematic, due to various shortcomings in the data collection process. Additionally, the informal economy is often excluded from official statistics. Nighttime lights satellite imagery and the LandScan population grid provide an alternative means for measuring economic activity. We have developed a model for creating a disaggregated map of estimated total (formal plus informal) economic activity for countries and states of the world. Regression models were developed to calibrate the sum of lights to official measures of economic activity at the sub-national level for China, India, Mexico, and the United States and at the national level for other countries of the world, and subsequently unique coefficients were derived. Multiplying the unique coefficients with the sum of lights provided estimates of total economic activity, which were spatially distributed to generate a spatially disaggregated 1 km2 map of total economic activity.  
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  ISSN 1874-9232 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2440  
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