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Author Edensor, T. doi  openurl
  Title The Gloomy City: Rethinking the Relationship between Light and Dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 52 Issue 3 Pages 422-438  
  Keywords Society  
  Abstract Given geography’s neglect of illuminated and dark space, this paper explores the various qualities of darkness that have contributed to the experience of the city. In recent history, darkness has been conceptualised negatively, for instance, with the ‘dark side’ and the ‘forces of darkness’ conceived as the opposite of that which enlightens and illuminates. Perhaps such metaphors testify to earlier urban conditions in which perils of all sorts lurked in the nocturnal city and doors were closed when darkness fell. Yet modern illumination has transformed nocturnal urban experience, producing cityscapes of regulation, hierarchical selectiveness, consumption, fantasy and imagination. However, this article suggests that the more positive qualities of darkness have been overlooked: the potential for conviviality and intimacy to be fostered in the dark, the aesthetics and atmospherics of darkness and shadow, the possibilities for apprehending the world through other senses and the dismissal of the star-saturated sky.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 739  
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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J. doi  openurl
  Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306  
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Author Willmott, N. J., Henneken, J., Elgar, M. A., & Jones, T. M. doi  openurl
  Title Guiding lights: Foraging responses of juvenile nocturnal orb‐web spiders to the presence of artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 125 Issue 5 Pages 289-287  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The reach of artificial light at night (ALAN) is growing rapidly around the globe, including the increasing use of energy‐efficient LED lights. Many studies document the physiological costs of light at night, but far fewer have focused on the potential benefits for nocturnal insectivores and the likely ecological consequences of shifts in predator–prey relationships. We investigated the effects of ALAN on the foraging behaviour and prey capture success in juvenile Australian garden orb‐web spiders (Eriophora biapicata). Laboratory experiments demonstrated that juvenile spiders were attracted to LED lights when choosing foraging sites, but prey availability was a stronger cue for remaining in a foraging site. Field experiments revealed a significant increase in prey capture rates for webs placed near LED lights. This suggests that any physiological costs of light at night may be offset by the foraging benefits, perhaps partially explaining recently observed increases in the size, fecundity and abundance of some orb‐web spider species in urban environments. Our results highlight the potential long‐term consequences of night lighting in urban ecosystems, through the impact of orb‐web spiders on insect populations.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2304  
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Author Young, L. C., VanderWerf, E. A., McKown M., Roberts, P., Schlueter, J., Vorsino, A., & Sischo, D. doi  openurl
  Title Evidence of Newell’s Shearwaters and Hawaiian Petrels on Oahu, Hawaii Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Condor: Ornithological Applications Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 121 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Hawaii’s only 2 endemic seabirds, Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli) and Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis), are listed under the United States Endangered Species Act. Threats to both species include light attraction and fallout, collisions with power lines and other structures, predation by invasive animals, and habitat degradation. Both species were assumed to be extirpated from the island of Oahu despite limited survey effort. We used survey data from Kauai (both species) and Maui (Hawaiian Petrel only) to model suitable habitat and light conditions. We then projected this model onto Oahu to identify potential survey sites. From April to September of 2016–2017, we deployed automated acoustic recording units at 13 potentially suitable sites across Oahu. We detected Newell’s Shearwaters at 2 sites; one on the leeward slopes of Mount Kaala in the Waianae Mountains and another at Poamoho in the Koolau Mountains. We detected Hawaiian Petrels at one location on the windward slope of Mount Kaala. All 3 sites were in nearly intact native forest with steep slopes. The frequency of detections at these sites suggests that both species are regularly prospecting on Oahu and potentially could be breeding there. If they are breeding, these individuals could represent missing links in the population connectivity of both species among islands. Protecting any remnant breeding populations would be of high conservation value given their recent population declines.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2308  
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Author Point, S. doi  openurl
  Title Blue Light Hazard: are exposure limit values protective enough for newborn infants? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Radioprotection Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 53 Issue 3 Pages 219-224  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Blue Light Hazard is an emerging concern for health of population. Nevertheless, acute exposure to blue rays from artificial light is well taken into account by normative requirements applicable to lamps engineering and risk for general population is low. There is also no evidence for a chronic effect of artificial lighting on retina for general population at radiance below exposure limit values. That said, children in the very first years of life constitute a specific population to consider. On one side, eye anatomy of very young infants is different from elder young people or adults. On the other side, infants can be in close contact with some luminous toys or night lights. This paper presents a first approach for taking into account the specific anatomy of newborn infants’ eyes in blue light hazard evaluation. Results show that differences of crystalline lens transparency, focal length and pupil diameter could induce a significantly higher retinal exposure than for adult.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1982  
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