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Author Russo, D.; Cosentino, F.; Festa, F.; De Benedetta, F.; Pejic, B.; Cerretti, P.; Ancillotto, L.
Title Artificial illumination near rivers may alter bat-insect trophic interactions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume (down) 252 Issue Pt B Pages 1671-1677
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial illumination at night represents an increasingly concerning threat to ecosystems worldwide, altering persistence, behaviour, physiology and fitness of many organisms and their mutual interactions, in the long-term affecting ecosystem functioning. Bats are very sensitive to artificial light at night because they are obligate nocturnal and feed on insects which are often also responsive to lights. Here we tested the effects of LED lighting on prey-predator interactions at riverine ecosystems, using bats and their insect prey as models, and compared bat and insect reactions in terms of bat activity and prey insect abundance and diversity, respectively, on artificially lit vs. unlit nights. Artificial light influenced both insect and bat assemblages in taxon-specific directions: insect abundances increased at lit sites, particularly due to an increase in small dipterans near the light source. Composition of insect assemblages also differed significantly between lit and unlit sites. Total bat activity declined at lit sites, but this change was mainly due to the response of the most abundant species, Myotis daubentonii, while opportunistic species showed no reaction or even an opposite pattern (Pipistrellus kuhlii). We show that artificial lighting along rivers may affect trophic interactions between bats and insects, resulting in a profound alteration of community structure and dynamics.
Address Wildlife Research Unit, Dipartimento di Agraria, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Universita, 100, 80055, Portici, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31284209 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2572
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Author Murphy, B.A.; O’Brien, C.; Elliott, J.A.
Title Red light at night permits the nocturnal rise of melatonin production in horses Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal The Veterinary Journal
Volume (down) 252 Issue Pages 105360
Keywords Animals
Abstract Exposure to white light at night suppresses melatonin production, impacts circadian rhythms and contributes to ill-health in humans. Human interaction with horses frequently occurs at night. We tested the hypothesis that dim red light would not suppress the nightly rise in serum melatonin levels in horses. In a crossover design, six horses were maintained for consecutive 48 h periods under a Light:Red (LR) and a Light:Dark (LD) photo-schedule. Transitions from light (>200 lux, polychromatic white light) to red (5 lux, peak wavelength 625 nm) or dark (<0.5 lux), and vice versa, coincided with ambient sunset and sunrise times. Blood was collected at 2 h intervals for 24 h during each treatment via indwelling jugular catheters. Samples were harvested for serum and stored at −20 °C until assayed for melatonin by radioimmunoassay. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA and t-tests analysed for differences in LR and LD melatonin profiles and their circadian rhythm parameters.

No time x treatment interaction or effect of treatment on serum melatonin levels were demonstrated (P > 0.05). A robust main effect of time (P<0.0001) predominated, with melatonin levels rising at night under both treatments. Statistically significant differences were not observed when LR and LD were compared for circadian rhythm measures of night time peak, area under the curve (AUC), or for times of onset (evening rise), offset (morning decline), or peak duration. Low intensity red light at night did not impact the pattern of melatonin secretion in this study and is, therefore, unlikely to impact the physiology of circadian or seasonal regulation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2656
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Author May, D.; Shidemantle, G.; Melnick-Kelley, Q.; Crane, K.; Hua, J.
Title The effect of intensified illuminance and artificial light at night on fitness and susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stressors Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume (down) 251 Issue Pages 600-608
Keywords Animals; frogs; amphibians; Lithobates sylvaticus
Abstract Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night – ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly co-occurring anthropogenic stressor, road salt (NaCl) and (3) susceptibility (infection load) to a common parasite (trematode). We also explored behavioral (swimming activity) and physiological (baseline corticosterone (CORT) release rates) changes induced by these light conditions, which may mediate changes in the other measured parameters. We found that both intensified daytime illuminance and ALAN reduced hatching success. In contrast, for amphibians that successfully hatched, neither treatment affected amphibian survival or time to metamorphosis but individuals exposed to ALAN were larger at metamorphosis. The light treatments also had marginal effects; individuals in ALAN treatments were more susceptible to NaCl and trematodes. Finally, tadpoles exposed to ALAN moved significantly less than tadpoles in the control and intensified daytime illuminance treatments, while light had no effect on CORT release rate. Overall, changes in light conditions, in particular ALAN, significantly impacted an amphibian model in laboratory conditions. This work underscores the importance of considering not only the direct effects of light on fitness metrics but also the indirect effects of light with other abiotic and biotic stressors. Anthropogenic-induced changes to light conditions are expected to continue increasing over time so understanding the diverse consequences of shifting light conditions will be paramount to protecting wildlife populations.
Address Biological Sciences Department, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2381
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Author Zhang, X.; Yang, W.; Liang, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, S.
Title Intensity dependent disruptive effects of light at night on activation of the HPG axis of tree sparrows (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume (down) 249 Issue Pages 904-909
Keywords Animals; Birds; hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; HPG axis; wild tree sparrow; Passer montanus; endocrine
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasingly recognized as a disruptor of the reproductive endocrine process and behavior of wild birds. However, there is no evidence that ALAN directly disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and no information on the effects of different ALAN intensities on birds. We experimentally tested whether ALAN affects reproductive endocrine activation in the HPG axis of birds, and whether this effect is related to the intensity of ALAN, in wild tree sparrows (Passer montanus). Forty-eight adult female birds were randomly assigned to four groups. They were first exposed to a short light photoperiod (8 h light and 16 h dark per day) for 20 days, then exposed to a long light photoperiod (16 h light and 8 h dark per day) to initiate the reproductive endocrine process. During these two kinds of photoperiod treatments, the four groups of birds were exposed to 0, 85, 150, and 300 lux light in the dark phase (night) respectively. The expression of the reproductive endocrine activation related TSH-β, Dio2 and GnRH-I gene was significantly higher in birds exposed to 85 lux light at night, and significantly lower in birds exposed to 150 and 300 lux, relative to the 0 lux control. The birds exposed to 85 lux had higher peak values of plasma LH and estradiol concentration and reached the peak earlier than birds exposed to 0, 150, or 300 lux did. The lower gene expression of birds exposed to 150 and 300 lux reduced their peak LH and estradiol values, but did not delay the timing of these peaks compared to the control group. These results reveal that low intensity ALAN accelerates the activation of the reproductive endocrine process in the HPG axis, whereas high intensity ALAN retards it.
Address College of Life and Environment Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2281
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Author Duarte, C.; Quintanilla-Ahumada, D.; Anguita, C.; Manríquez, P.H.; Widdicombe, S.; Pulgar, J.; Silva-Rodriguez, E.A.; Miranda, C.; Manríquez, K.; Quijón, P.A.
Title Artificial light pollution at night (ALAN) disrupts the distribution and circadian rhythm of a sandy beach isopod Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume (down) 248 Issue Pages 565-573
Keywords Animals; isopod; Tylos spinulosus; Chile; beaches; mesocosms
Abstract Coastal habitats, in particular sandy beaches, are becoming increasingly exposed to artificial light pollution at night (ALAN). Yet, only a few studies have this far assessed the effects of ALAN on the species inhabiting these ecosystems. In this study we assessed the effects of ALAN on Tylos spinulosus, a prominent wrack-consumer isopod living in sandy beaches of north-central Chile. This species burrows in the sand during daylight and emerges at night to migrate down-shore, so we argue it can be used as a model species for the study of ALAN effects on coastal nocturnal species. We assessed whether ALAN alters the distribution and locomotor activity of this isopod using a light system placed in upper shore sediments close to the edge of the dunes, mimicking light intensities measured near public lighting. The response of the isopods was compared to control transects located farther away and not exposed to artificial light. In parallel, we measured the isopods’ locomotor activity in the laboratory using actographs that recorded their movement within mesocosms simulating the beach surface. Measurements in the field indicated a clear reduction in isopod abundance near the source of the light and a restriction of their tidal distribution range, as compared to control transects. Meanwhile, the laboratory experiments showed that in mesocosms exposed to ALAN, isopods exhibited reduced activity and a circadian rhythm that was altered and even lost after a few days. Such changes with respect to control mesocosms with a natural day/night cycle suggest that the changes observed in the field were directly related to a disruption in the locomotor activity of the isopods. All together these results provide causal evidence of negative ALAN effects on this species, and call for further research on other nocturnal sandy beach species that might become increasingly affected by ALAN.
Address Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile;
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2228
Permanent link to this record