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Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting up the nighttime Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume (down) 362 Issue 6416 Pages 744-746  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract Among the most visually compelling images of the whole Earth have been those created using data obtained at night by astronauts or from satellites. The proliferation in use of electric lighting—including from industrial, commercial, municipal, and domestic sources—is striking. It sketches the spatial distribution of much of the human population, outlining a substantial proportion of the world's coastline, highlighting a multitude of towns and cities, and drawing the major highways that connect them. The data embodied in these nighttime images have been used to estimate and map levels of energy use, urbanization, and economic activity. They have also been key in focusing attention on the environmental impacts of the artificial light at night itself. Explicit steps need to be taken to limit these impacts, which vary according to the intensity, spectrum, spatial extent, and temporal dynamics of this lighting.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30442788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2058  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Two-stream approximation for rapid modeling the light pollution levels in local atmosphere Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Astrophysics and Space Science Abbreviated Journal Astrophys Space Sci  
  Volume (down) 341 Issue 2 Pages 301-307  
  Keywords Light pollution; Atmospheric effects; Methods: numerical; Radiative transfer; Scattering; modeling; two-stream approximation  
  Abstract The two-stream concept is used for modeling the radiative transfer in Earth's atmosphere illuminated by ground-based light sources. The light pollution levels (illuminance and irradiance) are computed for various aerosol microphysical parameters, specifically the asymmetry parameter g A , single scattering albedo ω A , and optical thickness τ A . Two distinct size distributions of Junge's and gamma-type are employed. Rather then being a monotonic function of τ A , the diffuse illuminance/irradiance shows a local minimum at specific τ A, lim independent of size distribution taken into consideration. The existence of local minima has relation to the scattering and attenuation efficiencies both of which have opposite effects. The computational scheme introduced in this paper is advantageous especially if the entire set of calculations needs to be repeated with an aim to simulate diffuse light in various situations and when altering optical states of the atmospheric environment.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-640X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 273  
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Author Souman, J.L.; Tinga, A.M.; Te Pas, S.F.; van Ee, R.; Vlaskamp, B.N.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute alerting effects of light: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume (down) 337 Issue Pages 228-239  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects and to assess to what extent they depend on other factors, such as time of day, exposure duration and sleep pressure. In total, we identified 74 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and the effects on behavioral measures of alertness were evaluated, either subjectively or measured in performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity or the color temperature of polychromatic white light in general has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness, though a substantial proportion of these studies failed to find significant effects. There is little evidence in the literature that these subjective alerting effects of light also translate into improvements on performance measures of alertness. For monochromatic or narrowband light exposure, some studies have shown improvement in reaction time tasks with exposure to blue light, but generally this was not accompanied by changes in subjective alertness. Thus, the alerting effects of light are far less clear than often suggested. We suggest that in future studies more attention should be paid to other factors that may influence the effects of light, such as chronotype, circadian phase, homeostatic state and prior light history.  
  Address Philips Research (Department Brain, Behavior & Cognition), Eindhoven, The Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28912014 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1727  
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Author Brüning, A.; Hölker, F. url  openurl
  Title Lichtverschmutzung und die Folgen für Fische. Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication In: Held, M., Hölker, F. & Jessel, B (2013) Schutz der Nacht – Lichtverschmutzung, Biodiversität und Nachtlandschaft. – BfN-Skripten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 336 Issue Pages 69-72  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 688  
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Author Kuechly, H.; Kyba, C.; Hölker, F. url  openurl
  Title Woher kommt das Licht? Räumliche Betrachtung der Lichtverschmutzung Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication In: Held, M., Hölker, F. & Jessel, B. (2013) Schutz der Nacht – Lichtverschmutzung, Biodiversität und Nachtlandschaft. – BfN-Skripten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 336 Issue Pages 39-42  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract In der Nacht ist die künstliche Beleuchtung eines der deutlichsten Kennzeichen für menschliche Aktivität auf der Erde. Wie bei vielen anderen anthropogenen Umweltveränderungen sind auch bei der künstlichen Beleuchtung die unmittelbaren Vorteile weit offensichtlicher als ihre unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen. Auch wenn über ein Drittel der Menschen in Deutschland die Milchstraße noch nie mit eigenen Augen gesehen hat (Emnid & PM Magazin 2002), sind sich nur wenige der Nachteile der künstlichen Beleuchtung bewusst. Daher verwundert es nicht, dass trotz energieeffizienterer Technologien die Kosten für die künstliche Beleuchtung nicht zurückgegangen sind–vielmehr werden heute immer mehr Straßen und Wege, Gärten und Gebäude beleuchtet.

Aber woher kommt das Licht genau? Lichtquellen und Lichtintensitäten, die Verteilung und die zeitliche Veränderung von Lichtemissionen lassen sich sehr gut mittels räumlicher Datenerhebung identifizieren, darstellen und analysieren. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die Verfahren und diskutiert Möglichkeiten zur Quantifizierung von Lichtverschmutzung.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 898  
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