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Author Willis, G.L.; Freelance, C.B.
Title The effect of directed photic stimulation of the pineal on experimental Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume (down) 182 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords Animals
Abstract The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs. Direct photic stimulation of the pineal altered the course of experimental PD while anatomical controls receiving stimulation of the frontal cortex exhibited a negative impact on the course of recovery of these animals. These effects were closely linked to the phase of the light/dark cycle. The present results suggest that while pineal photoreceptors are regarded as vestigial, functional photo-reactivity of the pineal remains. It is inferred that melanocytes are the active cells responsible for the observed effect since they remain functionally intact in mammalian pineal even though pineal photoreceptors are functionally inert. Although the stimuli applied in the present study may be regarded as artificial this study demonstrates that brain parenchyma remains differentially reactive to direct light exposure and presents a novel mechanism in circadian structures that needs to be explored.
Address The Bronowski Institute of Behavioural Neuroscience, Coliban Medical Centre, 19 Jennings Street, Kyneton, Victoria 3444, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28919247 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1732
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Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M.
Title Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT
Volume (down) 181 Issue Pages 52-66
Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain
Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.
Address Dept. Astrof´ısica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.; Zamorano, J.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.
Title The spectral amplification effect of clouds to the night sky radiance in Madrid Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume (down) 181 Issue Pages 11-23
Keywords Skyglow; Madrid; Spain; Europe; artificial light at night; light pollution; clouds; amplification
Abstract Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) may have various environmental impacts ranging from compromising the visibility of astronomical objects to the perturbation of circadian cycles in animals and humans. In the past much research has been carried out to study the impact of ALAN on the radiance of the night sky during clear sky conditions. This was mainly justified by the need for a better understanding of the behavior of ALAN propagation into the environment in order to protect world-class astronomical facilities. More recently, alongside to the threat to the natural starry sky, many issues have emerged from the biological science community. It has been shown that, nearby or inside cities, the presence of cloud cover generally acts as an amplifier for artificial sky radiance while clouds behave as attenuators for remote observers. In this paper we show the spectral behavior of the zenith sky radiance amplification factor exerted by clouds inside a city. We compare in-situ measurements made with the spectrometer SAND-4 with a numerical model applied to the specific geographical context of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in Spain.
Address Cégep de Sherbrooke, 475 rue du Cégep, Sherbrooke, Canada J1E 4K1; aubema(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1351
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Author Jechow, A.; Hölker, F.; Kolláth, Z.; Gessner, M.O.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Evaluating the summer night sky brightness at a research field site on Lake Stechlin in northeastern Germany Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume (down) 181 Issue Pages 24-32
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract We report on luminance measurements of the summer night sky at a field site on a freshwater lake in northeastern Germany (Lake Stechlin) to evaluate the amount of artificial skyglow from nearby and distant towns in the context of a planned study on light pollution. The site is located about 70 km north of Berlin in a rural area possibly belonging to one of the darkest regions in Germany. Continuous monitoring of the zenith sky luminance between June and September 2015 was conducted utilizing a Sky Quality Meter. With this device, typical values for clear nights in the range of 21.5–21.7 magSQM/arcsec2 were measured, which is on the order of the natural sky brightness during starry nights. On overcast nights, values down to 22.84 magSQM/arcsec2 were obtained, which is about one third as bright as on clear nights. The luminance measured on clear nights as well as the darkening with the presence of clouds indicate that there is very little influence of artificial skyglow on the zenith sky brightness at this location. Furthermore, fish-eye lens sky imaging luminance photometry was performed with a digital single-lens reflex camera on a clear night in the absence of moonlight. The photographs unravel several distant towns as possible sources of light pollution on the horizon. However, the low level of artificial skyglow makes the field site at Lake Stechlin an excellent location to study the effects of skyglow on a lake ecosystem in a controlled fashion.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1354
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Author Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.
Title Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume (down) 181 Issue in press Pages 74-86
Keywords Instrumentation
Abstract The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1399
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