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Author Gaston, K.J.; Duffy, J.P.; Gaston, S.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.
Title Human alteration of natural light cycles: causes and ecological consequences Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume (down) 176 Issue 4 Pages 917-931
Keywords Ecology; Day; Diurnal; Night; Nocturnal; Skyglow; Review
Abstract Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which light cycles have previously been consistent, this constitutes a novel environmental pressure, and one for which there is evidence for biological effects that span from molecular to community level. Here we provide a synthesis of understanding of the form and extent of this alteration, some of the key consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, interactions and synergies with other anthropogenic pressures on the environment, major uncertainties, and future prospects and management options. This constitutes a compelling example of the need for a thoroughly interdisciplinary approach to understanding and managing the impact of one particular anthropogenic pressure. The former requires insights that span molecular biology to ecosystem ecology, and the latter contributions of biologists, policy makers and engineers.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK, k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:25239105 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 371
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Author Touitou, Y.; Reinberg, A.; Touitou, D.
Title Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci
Volume (down) 173 Issue Pages 94-106
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of “probable carcinogens to humans” since “they involve a circadian disorganization”. Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.
Address UHSA – Groupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud, 54, avenue de la Republique, 94806 Villejuif, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28214594 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2455
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Author Kienast, F.; Weiss, M.
Title Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen Abbreviated Journal Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen
Volume (down) 170 Issue 1 Pages 18-23
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract How light emissions have been lighting up the Swiss forest since 1992

Light emissions increasingly light up the night sky. Worldwide and in Switzerland, there has been a marked increase over the last 20 to 30 years. This is problematic for biological-ecological and health reasons as well as for cultural reasons. At federal and cantonal level, there are various laws and technical standards governing light emissions. In order to monitor the success of these regulations, it is important to observe night-time brightness over longer periods and within larger areas. In Switzerland, this is done within the framework of the Swiss Landscape Observatory (LABES), which provides time series for night-time observations for the years 1992 to 2012. The present work uses satellite images to investigate the extent to which the Swiss forests are lighted up by nocturnal emissions from surrounding residential areas and infrastructures. It also examines the differences between the forest and open land (meadows, fields and remote areas far away from settlements above the treeline) and how the forested area without any detectable artificial light developed between 1992 and 2012. It is shown that the Swiss forests are more and more lighted up by surrounding light sources. With the exception of the Jura, night-time brightness in forest areas is even higher than in open land, which in the present study is dominated by areas above the treeline. The results can be explained by the relative proximity of the forest to residential areas. On the Plateau the last patch of forest without any detectable artificial light during the night disappeared in 2001, and in the Jura mountains in 2010: in the Alps there are still between 4% (Western Central Alps) and 16% (Southern Alps) forest areas without any detectable artificial light during night time. The last large dark areas are, however, not found in the forested area, but in the areas above the treeline. They should be given adequate protection against illumination, for example with large protection areas (“dark sky parks”).

Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen

Lichtemissionen erhellen den Nachthimmel immer mehr. Weltweit und in der Schweiz ist in den letzten 20 bis 30 Jahren eine starke Zunahme festzustellen. Dies ist sowohl aus biologisch-ökologischen und gesundheitlichen als auch aus kulturellen Gründen problematisch. Auf Bundes- und Kantonsebene gibt es verschiedene Gesetze und technische Normen, welche die Lichtemissionen regeln. Für die Erfolgskontrolle dieser Vorschriften ist es wichtig, die Nachthelligkeit über längere Zeiträume und grössere Gebiete zu beobachten. Dies geschieht in der Schweiz im Rahmen der Landschaftsbeobachtung Schweiz (LABES), die für die Jahre 1992 bis 2012 Zeitserien zur Nachthelligkeit zur Verfügung stellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird anhand von Satellitenbildern untersucht, wie stark der Schweizer Wald durch Lichtemissionen der umliegenden Siedlungen und Infrastrukturen aufgehellt wird, welche Unterschiede zum Offenland (Wiesen, Felder und siedlungsferne Gebiete über der Waldgrenze) bestehen und wie sich die Fläche des nachtdunklen Waldes zwischen 1992 und 2012 entwickelt hat. Es zeigt sich, dass die Schweizer Wälder zunehmend durch umliegende Lichtquellen aufgehellt sind. Mit Ausnahme des Juras ist die Nachthelligkeit in Waldgebieten sogar höher als im Offenland, das in der vorliegenden Untersuchung flächenmässig durch die Gebiete über der Waldgrenze dominiert wird. Die Resultate können mit der relativen Siedlungsnähe des Waldes erklärt werden. Während es im Mittelland ab 2001 und im Jura ab 2010 keine nachtdunklen Waldflächen mehr gibt, findet man in den Alpen je nach Region noch zwischen 4% (westliche Zentralalpen) und 16% (Alpensüdflanke) völlig nachtdunkle Waldflächen, d.h. Waldflächen ohne menschlichen Lichteinfluss. Die letzten grossen, völlig nachtdunklen Flächen liegen aber nicht im Waldareal, sondern in den Gebieten über der Waldgrenze. Sie sollten gegen Aufhellung besonders geschützt werden, zum Beispiel mit grossflächigen Schutzgebieten («dark sky parks»).

Comment les émissions lumineuses éclairent la forêt suisse depuis 1992

Le ciel nocturne est de plus en plus éclairé par les émissions lumineuses. On constate dans le monde entier et en Suisse une forte progression des émissions lumineuses ces dernières 20 à 30 années. Ceci est problématique aussi bien pour des raisons bioécologiques et sanitaires que culturelles. Différentes lois et normes techniques, aux niveaux de la Confédération et des cantons, règlent les émissions lumineuses. Il est important d'observer la clarté nocturne sur de longues périodes et de larges régions afin de contrôler le succès de ces mesures. Ceci est réalisé dans le cadre de l'Observation du paysage suisse (OPS) qui met à disposition des séries de données sur les émissions lumineuses pour les années 1992 à 2012. Ce travail examine à l'aide d'images satellites à quel point la forêt suisse est éclairée par les émissions lumineuses nocturnes issues des zones habitées et des infrastructures environnantes, les différences existantes avec les zones ouvertes (prés, champs et zones éloignées des habitats au-delà de la forêt) et comment se sont développées les surfaces nocturnes sombres de la forêt entre 1992 et 2012. Il est démontré que les forêts suisses sont de plus en plus éclairées par les sources lumineuses environnantes. A l'exception du Jura, la clarté nocturne est même plus importante en forêt que dans les surfaces ouvertes, qui dans cette étude sont essentiellement composées de surfaces au-delà de la forêt. Les résultats peuvent être expliqués par la proximité de la forêt avec les zones habitées. Alors qu'il n'existe plus de surfaces forestières sombres la nuit depuis 2001 sur le Plateau et 2010 dans le Jura, il existe encore dans les Alpes selon la région, 4% (Alpes centrales occidentales) et 16% (versant sud des Alpes), de surfaces forestières sombres durant la nuit, c'est à dire des surfaces forestières sans influence lumineuse anthropogénique. Les dernières grandes surfaces totalement sombres durant la nuit ne se situent toutefois pas en forêt, mais au-delà de la forêt. Elles devraient être protégées contre les émissions lumineuses, par exemple avec des grandes réserves («dark sky parks»).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-7818 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2165
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Author Blagonravov, M.L.; Bryk, A.A.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Goryachev, V.A.; Chibisov, S.M.; Kurlaeva, A.O.; Agafonov, E.D.
Title Structure of Rhythms of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Excretion of Electrolytes, and Secretion of Melatonin in Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Maintained under Conditions of Prolonged Daylight Duration Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine Abbreviated Journal Bull Exp Biol Med
Volume (down) 168 Issue 1 Pages 18-23
Keywords Animals; arterial hypertension; biological rhythms; excessive exposure to light; melatonin
Abstract We studied the structure of rhythms of BP, HR (by telemetric monitoring), electrolyte excretion (by capillary electrophoresis), and products of epiphyseal melatonin (by the urinary concentration of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin measured by ELISA) in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive SHR rats maintained at 16/8 h and 20/4 h light-dark regimes. In Wister-Kyoto rats exposed to prolonged daylight, we observed changes in the amplitude, rhythm power (% of rhythm), and range of oscillations of systolic BP; HR mezor decreased. In SHR rats, mezor of HR also decreased, but other parameters of rhythms remained unchanged. Changes in electrolyte excretion were opposite in normo- and hypertensive rats. Under conditions of 20/4 h light-dark regime, daytime melatonin production tended to increase in normotensive rats and significantly increased in SHR rats. At the same time, nighttime melatonin production did not change in both normotensive and hypertensive animals. As the secretion of melatonin has similar features in animals of both lines, we can say that the epiphyseal component of the “biological clock” is not the only component of the functional system that determines the response of the studied rhythms to an increase in the duration of light exposure.
Address V. A. Frolov Department of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Institute for Medicine, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0007-4888 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31741240 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2755
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Author Desouhant, E.; Gomes, E.; Mondy, N.; Amat, I.
Title Mechanistic, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Abbreviated Journal Entomol Exp Appl
Volume (down) 167 Issue 1 Pages 37-58
Keywords Animals
Abstract The alternation of light and dark periods on a daily or seasonal time scale is of utmost importance for the synchronization of physiological and behavioral processes in the environment. For the last 2 decades, artificial light at night (ALAN) has strongly increased worldwide, disrupting the photoperiod and its related physiological processes, and impacting the survival and reproduction of wild animals. ALAN is now considered as a major concern for biodiversity and human health. Here, we present why insects are relevant biological models to investigate the impact of ALAN. First the phenotypic responses to ALAN and their underpinning mechanisms are reviewed. The consequences for population dynamics, and the community composition and functioning are described in the second part. Because ALAN provides new and widespread selective pressure, we inventory evolutionary changes in response to this anthropogenic change. Finally, we identify promising future avenues, focusing on the necessity of understanding evolutionary processes that could help stakeholders consider darkness as a resource to preserve biodiversity as well as numerous ecosystem services in which insects are involved.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-8703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2195
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