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Author Aubé, M.; Simoneau, A.; Wainscoat, R.; Nelson, L.
Title Modeling the effects of phosphor converted LED lighting to the night sky of the Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 478 Issue 2 Pages 1776-1783
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The goal of this study is to evaluate the current level of light pollution in the night sky at the Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui in Hawaii. This is accomplished with a numerical model that was tested in the first International Dark Sky Reserve located in Mont-Mégantic National Park in Canada. The model uses ground data on the artificial light sources present in the region of study, geographical data, and remotely sensed data for: 1) the nightly upward radiance; 2) the terrain elevation; and, 3) the ground spectral reflectance of the region. The results of the model give a measure of the current state of the sky spectral radiance at the Haleakala Observatory. Then, using the current state as a reference point, multiple light conversion plans are elaborated and evaluated using the model. We can thus estimate the expected impact of each conversion plan on the night sky radiance spectrum. A complete conversion to white (LEDs) with (CCT) of 4000K and 3000K are contrasted with a conversion using (PC) amber (LEDs). We include recommendations concerning the street lamps to be used in sensitive areas like the cities of Kahului and Kihei and suggest best lighting practices related to the color of lamps used at night.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1907
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Author Kennard, D.C.; Chamberlin, V.D.
Title All-night Light for Layers Type Report
Year 1931 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) Bulletin 476 Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
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Corporate Author Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Thesis
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2392
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Author Bará, S.
Title Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 473 Issue 3 Pages 4164-4173
Keywords Instrumentation; atmospheric effects; light pollution; numerical methods; photometry
Abstract A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist–Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec–2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson–Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.
Address 1Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es
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Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2164
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume (down) 443 Issue 4 Pages 3665-3674
Keywords Skyglow; radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical
Abstract The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 538
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Red is the new black: how the colour of urban skyglow varies with cloud cover Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume (down) 425 Issue 1 Pages 701-708
Keywords Keywords: skyglow; radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; instrumentation: detectors; light pollution
Abstract The development of street lamps based on solid-state lighting technology is likely to introduce a major change in the colour of urban skyglow (one form of light pollution). We demonstrate the need for long-term monitoring of this trend by reviewing the influences it is likely to have on disparate fields. We describe a prototype detector which is able to monitor these changes, and could be produced at a cost low enough to allow extremely widespread use. Using the detector, we observed the differences in skyglow radiance in red, green and blue channels. We find that clouds increase the radiance of red light by a factor of 17.6, which is much larger than that for blue (7.1). We also find that the gradual decrease in sky radiance observed on clear nights in Berlin appears to be most pronounced at longer wavelengths.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 272
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