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Author Bouroussis, C.A.; Topalis, F.V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessment of outdoor lighting installations and their impact on light pollution using unmanned aircraft systems – The concept of the drone-gonio-photometer Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume (down) 253 Issue Pages 107155  
  Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper presents the ongoing work of the lighting laboratory to develop a standardized method for the measurement of several types of lighting installations using unmanned aircraft systems. The technology of unmanned aircraft systems can incorporate multiple types of sensors and can be programmed to fly in predefined areas and routes in order to perform complex measurements with limited human intervention. This technology provides the freedom of measurements from several angular positions and altitudes in a fast, easy, accurate and repeatable way. The overall aim of this work is to assess the lighting installations, not only against the applicable lighting standards but also to investigate and reveal issues related to light pollution and obtrusive lighting. The latter are issues that in most cases are neglected due to the lack of standardized methods of calculation and measurement. Current assessment methods require illuminance or luminance measurements of horizontal and vertical surfaces generally from the ground. The proposed approach provides a holistic three-dimensional evaluation of the lighting installations beyond the common methods and geometries and opens the discussion for future update of the relevant standards on outdoor lighting. In the scope of this paper, several proof-of-concept cases are presented.  
  Address Lighting Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str, 15780, Zografou, Athens, Greece; bouroussis(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2996  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Russo, D.; Cosentino, F.; Festa, F.; De Benedetta, F.; Pejic, B.; Cerretti, P.; Ancillotto, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial illumination near rivers may alter bat-insect trophic interactions Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume (down) 252 Issue Pt B Pages 1671-1677  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artificial illumination at night represents an increasingly concerning threat to ecosystems worldwide, altering persistence, behaviour, physiology and fitness of many organisms and their mutual interactions, in the long-term affecting ecosystem functioning. Bats are very sensitive to artificial light at night because they are obligate nocturnal and feed on insects which are often also responsive to lights. Here we tested the effects of LED lighting on prey-predator interactions at riverine ecosystems, using bats and their insect prey as models, and compared bat and insect reactions in terms of bat activity and prey insect abundance and diversity, respectively, on artificially lit vs. unlit nights. Artificial light influenced both insect and bat assemblages in taxon-specific directions: insect abundances increased at lit sites, particularly due to an increase in small dipterans near the light source. Composition of insect assemblages also differed significantly between lit and unlit sites. Total bat activity declined at lit sites, but this change was mainly due to the response of the most abundant species, Myotis daubentonii, while opportunistic species showed no reaction or even an opposite pattern (Pipistrellus kuhlii). We show that artificial lighting along rivers may affect trophic interactions between bats and insects, resulting in a profound alteration of community structure and dynamics.  
  Address Wildlife Research Unit, Dipartimento di Agraria, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Universita, 100, 80055, Portici, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31284209 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2572  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Murphy, B.A.; O’Brien, C.; Elliott, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Red light at night permits the nocturnal rise of melatonin production in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal The Veterinary Journal  
  Volume (down) 252 Issue Pages 105360  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Exposure to white light at night suppresses melatonin production, impacts circadian rhythms and contributes to ill-health in humans. Human interaction with horses frequently occurs at night. We tested the hypothesis that dim red light would not suppress the nightly rise in serum melatonin levels in horses. In a crossover design, six horses were maintained for consecutive 48 h periods under a Light:Red (LR) and a Light:Dark (LD) photo-schedule. Transitions from light (>200 lux, polychromatic white light) to red (5 lux, peak wavelength 625 nm) or dark (<0.5 lux), and vice versa, coincided with ambient sunset and sunrise times. Blood was collected at 2 h intervals for 24 h during each treatment via indwelling jugular catheters. Samples were harvested for serum and stored at −20 °C until assayed for melatonin by radioimmunoassay. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA and t-tests analysed for differences in LR and LD melatonin profiles and their circadian rhythm parameters.

No time x treatment interaction or effect of treatment on serum melatonin levels were demonstrated (P > 0.05). A robust main effect of time (P<0.0001) predominated, with melatonin levels rising at night under both treatments. Statistically significant differences were not observed when LR and LD were compared for circadian rhythm measures of night time peak, area under the curve (AUC), or for times of onset (evening rise), offset (morning decline), or peak duration. Low intensity red light at night did not impact the pattern of melatonin secretion in this study and is, therefore, unlikely to impact the physiology of circadian or seasonal regulation.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1090-0233 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2656  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author May, D.; Shidemantle, G.; Melnick-Kelley, Q.; Crane, K.; Hua, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of intensified illuminance and artificial light at night on fitness and susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stressors Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume (down) 251 Issue Pages 600-608  
  Keywords Animals; frogs; amphibians; Lithobates sylvaticus  
  Abstract Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night – ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly co-occurring anthropogenic stressor, road salt (NaCl) and (3) susceptibility (infection load) to a common parasite (trematode). We also explored behavioral (swimming activity) and physiological (baseline corticosterone (CORT) release rates) changes induced by these light conditions, which may mediate changes in the other measured parameters. We found that both intensified daytime illuminance and ALAN reduced hatching success. In contrast, for amphibians that successfully hatched, neither treatment affected amphibian survival or time to metamorphosis but individuals exposed to ALAN were larger at metamorphosis. The light treatments also had marginal effects; individuals in ALAN treatments were more susceptible to NaCl and trematodes. Finally, tadpoles exposed to ALAN moved significantly less than tadpoles in the control and intensified daytime illuminance treatments, while light had no effect on CORT release rate. Overall, changes in light conditions, in particular ALAN, significantly impacted an amphibian model in laboratory conditions. This work underscores the importance of considering not only the direct effects of light on fitness metrics but also the indirect effects of light with other abiotic and biotic stressors. Anthropogenic-induced changes to light conditions are expected to continue increasing over time so understanding the diverse consequences of shifting light conditions will be paramount to protecting wildlife populations.  
  Address Biological Sciences Department, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2381  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lamphar, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatio-temporal association of light pollution and urban sprawl using remote sensing imagery and GIS: A simple method based in Otsu's algorithm Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume (down) 251 Issue Pages 107060  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Automatic thresholding methods are used to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land subject to different natural and anthropogenic processes. Image segmentation plays an important role in this analysis, where urban sprawl detection take place with daylight images. However, recently some investigators have used nocturnal images in remote sensing imagery research. Such georeferenced data represent a good tool for analysis of the light pollution and urban sprawl. There are various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of the light projected from the cities. Though, with a correct method based on background subtraction, any satellite remotely sensed nocturnal image can be useful in detecting urban sprawl. We base this work on thresholding processes of georeferenced nocturnal satellite images. We used a method combining digital classification techniques, geographic information systems and statistical analyzes. The proposed method is helpful because of a simple implementation and time saving. The pixel intensity of nocturnal images can offer a tool to calculate aspects related to electricity consumption and the efficiency of public lighting. We hope the results motivates other authors to study relationships with other social, natural and economic issues.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2990  
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