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Author Ardavani, O.; Zerefos, S.; Doulos, L.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Redesigning the exterior lighting as part of the urban landscape: The role of transgenic bioluminescent plants in mediterranean urban and suburban lighting environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Cleaner Production Abbreviated Journal Journal of Cleaner Production  
  Volume (down) 242 Issue Pages 118477  
  Keywords Plants; Lighting  
  Abstract This research discusses the feasibility of replacing or supporting artificial lighting with Transgenic Bioluminescent Plants (TBP), as a means of minimizing light pollution, reducing electrical energy consumption and de-carbonizing urban and suburban outdoor environments, creating sustainable conditions and enriching the quality of life. Until now, no information is given about the light output of any TBPs and the question “Are the TBPs capable of producing the necessary lighting levels for exterior lighting?” is unanswered. For this reason, a new methodology is proposed for selecting and analyzing the lighting output potential of transgenic plants ted for specific climatic conditions. This methodology considers growth and reduction factors, as well as a formulae for estimating the plants’ luminous output by performing light measurements. Results show that transgenic plants in medium growth can emit a median luminous flux of up to 57 lm, a value that can definitely support low lighting requirements when used in large numbers of plants. From the lighting measurements and calculations performed in this research, the light output of the TBPs for a typical road with 5m width was found equal to 2lx. The amount of plants required was 40 at each side of the road for every 30m of streets with P6 road class. The results show that the use of bioluminescent plants can actually contribute to the reduction of energy consumption, concerning only the lighting criterium, thus creating an enormous opportunity for a new state-of- the-art market and research that could potentially minimize CO2 emissions and light pollution, improve urban and suburban microclimate, mitigate the effects of climate change, as well as provide an alternative means of lighting affecting both outdoor lighting design and landscape planning in suburban and urban settings. Moreover, further research should be applied considering also other possible ecological impacts before applying TBPs for exterior lighting applications.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2711  
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Author Owens, A. C. S., Cochard, P., Durrant, J., Farnworth, B., Perkin, E. K., &Seymoure, B. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution Is a Driver of Insect Declines Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 241 Issue Pages 108259  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Insects around the world are rapidly declining. Concerns over what this loss means for food security and ecological communities have compelled a growing number of researchers to search for the key drivers behind the decline. Habitat loss, pesticide use, invasive species, and climate change all have likely played a role, but we posit here that artificial light at night (ALAN) is another important — but often overlooked — bringer of the insect apocalypse. We first discuss the history and extent of ALAN, and then present evidence that ALAN has led to insect declines through its interference with the development, movement, foraging, and reproductive success of diverse insect species, as well as its positive effect on insectivore predation. We conclude with a discussion of how artificial lights can be tuned to reduce their impacts on vulnerable populations. ALAN is unique among anthropogenic habitat disturbances in that it is fairly easy to ameliorate, and leaves behind no residual effects. Greater recognition of the ways in which ALAN impacts insects can help conservationists reduce or eliminate one of the major drivers of insect declines.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2649  
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Author Lao, S.; Robertson, B.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Blair, R.B.; Eckles, J.W.; Turner, R.J.; Loss, S.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of artificial night at night and polarized light on bird-building collisions Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume (down) 241 Issue Pages 108358  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Collisions with buildings annually kill up to 1 billion birds in the United States. Bird-building collisions primarily occur at glass surfaces: birds often fail to perceive glass as a barrier and appear to be attracted to artificial light emitted from windows. However, some aspects of avian vision are poorly understood, including how bird responses to different types of light influence building collisions. Some evidence suggests birds can detect polarized light, which may serve as a cue to assist with migration orientation and/or detect water bodies. Dark, reflective surfaces, including glass, reflect high degrees of polarized light, causing polarized light pollution (PLP). However, no studies have analyzed the relationship between bird collisions and PLP reflected from buildings. Additionally, while artificial light at night (ALAN) is frequently implicated as a major factor influencing bird-building collisions, few studies have analyzed this relationship. We investigated both types of light pollution—PLP and ALAN—and their association with bird collisions at 48 façades of 13 buildings in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. We found that the area of glass emitting ALAN was the most important factor influencing collisions, and that this effect of ALAN was independent of overall glass area; this result provides strong support for turning off lights at night to reduce bird-building collisions. Although we found no relationship between PLP and collisions, additional research is needed to better understand bird responses to polarized light. Fully understanding how different aspects of light influence bird-building collisions can inform conservation efforts to reduce this major threat to birds.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2757  
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Author Wang, J.; Zhou, M.; Xu, X.; Roudini, S.; Sander, S.P.; Pongetti, T.J.; Miller, S.D.; Reid, J.S.; Hyer, E.; Spurr, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Development of a nighttime shortwave radiative transfer model for remote sensing of nocturnal aerosols and fires from VIIRS Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume (down) 241 Issue Pages 111727  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract The launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Sumo-NPP satellite in 2011 ushered in a new era of using visible light and shortwave radiation at night to characterize aerosol and fire distributions from space. In order to exploit the full range of unprecedented observational capabilities of VIIRS, we have developed a nighttime shortwave radiative transfer model capability in the UNified and Linearized Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM). This capability is based on the use of additional source functions to treat illumination from the Moon, from fires, and from artificial lights. We have applied this model to address fundamental questions associated with the VIIRS sensing of aerosol and fire at night. Detailed description of model developments and validation (either directly with surface measurements of lunar spectra or indirectly through cross validation) are presented. Our analysis reveals that: (a) when convolution with the broad-range (500–900 nm) relative spectral response (RSR) function of the VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is omitted, AOD retrieval from the DNB have uncertainties up to a factor of two in conditions with low or moderate AOD (<0.5 in mid-visible); (b) using a wavelength independent spectrum for the surface illumination source can lead to an AOD bias of −10% over surfaces illuminated by light-emitting diodes and fluorescent lamps, and −30% illuminated by high-pressure sodium lamps; and (c) a DNB-equivalent narrow band for AOD retrieval over the surfaces illuminated by the three types of bulbs studied in this paper is found to be centered at 585 nm at which the look-up table can be generated for AOD retrieval from DNB. Furthermore, while uncertainty in AOD retrievals from the DNB decreases as AOD increases, fire characterization can be affected by AOD; for a smoke-scenario AOD of 2.0, the DNB and SWIR (1.6 μm) radiances can be reduced by 50% depending on the fire area fraction and temperature within VIIRS pixel. DNB is overall more sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than SWIR and can be used to retrieve AOD over bright surfaces. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer effects and the non-collimated nature of most artificial light sources are neglected in this 1D radiative transfer (plane-parallel) model, resulting in possibly large uncertainties (e.g., the inability to reproduce side-illumination of clouds by city lights) that should be studied in future.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2863  
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Author Hu, T.; Huang, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A novel locally adaptive method for modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics of global electric power consumption based on DMSP-OLS nighttime stable light data Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Applied Energy Abbreviated Journal Applied Energy  
  Volume (down) 240 Issue Pages 778-792  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Timely and reliable estimation of electricity power consumption (EPC) is essential to the rational deployment of electricity power resources. Nighttime stable light (NSL) data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) have the potential to model global 1-km gridded EPC. A processing chain to estimate EPC includes: (1) NSL data correction; and (2) regression model between EPC statistics and NSL data. For the global gridded EPC estimation, the current approach is to correct the global NSL image in a uniform manner and establish the linear relationships between NSL and EPC. However, the impacts of local socioeconomic inconsistencies on the NSL correction and model establishment are not fully considered. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel locally adaptive method for global EPC estimation. Firstly, we set up two options (with or without the correction) for each local area considering the global NSL image is not saturated everywhere. Secondly, three directions (forward, backward, or average) are alternatives for the inter-annual correction to remove the discontinuity effect of NSL data. Thirdly, four optional models (linear, logarithmic, exponential, or second-order polynomial) are adopted for the EPC estimation of each local area with different socioeconomic dynamic. Finally, the options for each step constitute all candidate processing chains, from which the optimal one is adaptively chosen for each local area based on the coefficient of determination. The results demonstrate that our product outperforms the existing one, at global, continental, and national scales. Particularly, the proportion of countries/districts with a high accuracy (MARE (mean of the absolute relative error)  ≤ 10%) increases from 17.8% to 57.8% and the percentage of countries/districts with inaccurate results (MARE > 50%) decreases sharply from 23.0% to 3.7%. This product can enhance the detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of global EPC.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-2619 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2242  
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