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Author Gong, P.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Bai, Y.; Chen, B.; Hu, T.; Liu, X.; Xu, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Annual maps of global artificial impervious area (GAIA) between 1985 and 2018 Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume (down) 236 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Artificial impervious areas are predominant indicators of human settlements. Timely, accurate, and frequent information on artificial impervious areas is critical to understanding the process of urbanization and land use/cover change, as well as of their impacts on the environment and biodiversity. Despite their importance, there still lack annual maps of high-resolution Global Artificial Impervious Areas (GAIA) with longer than 30-year records, due to the high demand of high performance computation and the lack of effective mapping algorithms. In this paper, we mapped annual GAIA from 1985 to 2018 using the full archive of 30-m resolution Landsat images on the Google Earth Engine platform. With ancillary datasets, including the nighttime light data and the Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar data, we improved the performance of our previously developed algorithm in arid areas. We evaluated the GAIA data for 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the mean overall accuracy is higher than 90%. A cross-product comparison indicates the GAIA data are the only dataset spanning over 30 years. The temporal trend in GAIA agrees well with other datasets at the local, regional, and global scales. Our results indicate that the GAIA reached 797,076 km2 in 2018, which is 1.5 times more than that in 1990. China and the United States (US) rank among the top two in artificial impervious area, accounting for approximately 50% of the world's total in 2018. The artificial impervious area of China surpassed that of the US in 2015. By 2018, the remaining eight among the top ten countries are India, Russia, Brazil, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, and Canada. The GAIA dataset can be freely downloaded from http://data.ess.tsinghua.edu.cn.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2756  
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Author Kotarba, A.Z.; Chacewicz, S.; Żmudzka, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night sky photometry over Warsaw (Poland) evaluated simultaneously with surface-based and satellite-based cloud observations Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume (down) 235 Issue Pages 95-107  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract Light pollution is a widely distributed form of anthropogenic pollution that threatens both biodiversity and human health. One of the most popular indicators is known as night sky brightness (NSB), measured with photometric techniques. In the study, we report results of the very first, long-term photometric survey of NSB over Poland's capital, Warsaw, for 636 nights between 2014 and 2016 using a sky quality meter (SQM). Data were collected for all-weather conditions and, for the first time, we simultaneously use two independent sources of cloud amount data: surface-based (SYNOP) and satellite-based (Meteosat/SEVIRI). Results show that Warsaw is significantly polluted by light, with average NSB of 18.65 ± 0.06 magSQM/arcsec2 (15 times higher than unpolluted sky). Zenithal NSB is almost unaffected by moonlight. During astronomical nights, cloud cover was the dominant determinant of NSB, increasing by 7 times for overcast sky. In general, the sky brightened by ∼0.2 magSQM/arcsec2 for each 10% increase in cloud fraction. Satellite-based cloud amount data was found to be a very reliable alternative to traditional SYNOP observations. No statistically significant difference was found for average NSB calculated using satellite and SYNOP datasets. This finding is of particular importance, since the coverage of surface-based data is limited, while satellite observations can be obtained for any location on Earth, and collocate with any NSB photometric station. Our investigation also highlighted that SYNOP data are unreliable when cloud amount is low. This is due to the different fields of view for SQM (20°) and SYNOP (180°) observations of broken cloud.  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2580  
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Author Rebke, M.; Dierschke, V.; Weiner, C.N.; Aumüller, R.; Hill, K.; Hill, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume (down) 233 Issue Pages 220-227  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract A growing number of offshore wind farms have led to a tremendous increase in artificial lighting in the marine environment. This study disentangles the connection of light characteristics, which potentially influence the reaction of nocturnally migrating passerines to artificial illumination under different cloud cover conditions. In a spotlight experiment on a North Sea island, birds were exposed to combinations of light colour (red, yellow, green, blue, white), intensity (half, full) and blinking mode (intermittent, continuous) while measuring their number close to the light source with thermal imaging cameras.

We found that no light variant was constantly avoided by nocturnally migrating passerines crossing the sea. The number of birds did neither differ between observation periods with blinking light of different colours nor compared to darkness. While intensity did not influence the number attracted, birds were drawn more towards continuous than towards blinking illumination, when stars were not visible. Red continuous light was the only exception that did not differ from the blinking counterpart. Continuous green, blue and white light attracted significantly more birds than continuous red light in overcast situations.

Our results suggest that light sources offshore should be restricted to a minimum, but if lighting is needed, blinking light is to be preferred over continuous light, and if continuous light is required, red light should be applied.
 
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2255  
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Author Coulthard, E.; Norrey, J.; Shortall, C.; Harris, W.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ecological traits predict population changes in moths Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume (down) 233 Issue Pages 213-219  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Understanding the ecological traits which predispose species to local or global extinction allows for more effective pre-emptive conservation management interventions. Insect population declines are a major facet of the global biodiversity crisis, yet even in Europe they remain poorly understood. Here we identify traits linked to population trends in ‘common and widespread’ UK moths. Population trend data from the Rothamsted Research Insect Survey spanning 40 years was subject to classification and regression models to identify common traits among species experiencing a significant change in occurrence. Our final model had an accuracy of 76% and managed to predict declining species on 90% of occasions, but was less successful with increasing species. By far the most powerful predictor associated for declines was moth wingspan with large species declining more frequently. Preference for woody or herbaceous larval food sources, nocturnal photoperiod activity, and richness of habitats occupied also proved to be significantly associated with decline. Our results suggest that ecological traits can be reliably used to predict declines in moths, and that this model could be used for Data Deficient species, of which there are many.  
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  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2260  
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Author Saini, C.; Hutton, P.; Gao, S.; Simpson, R.K.; Giraudeau, M.; Sepp, T.; Webb, E.; McGraw, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exposure to artificial light at night increases innate immune activity during development in a precocial bird Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol  
  Volume (down) 233 Issue Pages 84-88  
  Keywords Animals; Birds; king quail; Excalfactoria chinensis; immunity  
  Abstract Humans have greatly altered Earth's night-time photic environment via the production of artificial light at night (ALAN; e.g. street lights, car traffic, billboards, lit buildings). ALAN is a problem of growing importance because it may significantly disrupt the seasonal and daily physiological rhythms and behaviors of animals. There has been considerable interest in the impacts of ALAN on health of humans and other animals, but most of this work has centered on adults and we know comparatively little about effects on young animals. We exposed 3-week-old king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) to a constant overnight blue-light regime for 6 weeks and assessed weekly bactericidal activity of plasma against Escherichia coli – a commonly employed metric of innate immunity in animals. We found that chronic ALAN exposure significantly increased bactericidal activity and that this elevation in immune performance manifested at different developmental time points in males and females. Whether this short-term increase in immune activity can be extended to wild animals, and whether ALAN-mediated increases in immune activity have positive or negative fitness effects are unknown and will provide interesting avenues for future studies.  
  Address School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States of America. Electronic address: Kevin.McGraw@asu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30974186 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2291  
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