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Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime Ecology: The “Nocturnal Problem” Revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The American Naturalist Abbreviated Journal The American Naturalist  
  Volume (down) 193 Issue 4 Pages 481-502  
  Keywords Ecology; activity; diel; ecosystems; macroecology; nighttime; nocturnal; time partitioning  
  Abstract The existence of a synthetic program of research on what was then termed the “nocturnal problem” and that we might now call “nighttime ecology” was declared more than 70 years ago. In reality, this failed to materialize, arguably as a consequence of practical challenges in studying organisms at night and instead concentrating on the existence of circadian rhythms, the mechanisms that give rise to them, and their consequences. This legacy is evident to this day, with consideration of the ecology of the nighttime markedly underrepresented in ecological research and literature. However, several factors suggest that it would be timely to revive the vision of a comprehensive research program in nighttime ecology. These include (i) that the study of the ecology of the night is being revolutionized by new and improved technologies; (ii) suggestions that, far from being a minor component of biodiversity, a high proportion of animal species are active at night; (iii) that fundamental questions about differences and connections between the ecology of the daytime and the nighttime remain largely unanswered; and (iv) that the nighttime environment is coming under severe anthropogenic pressure. In this article, I seek to reestablish nighttime ecology as a synthetic program of research, highlighting key focal topics and questions and providing an overview of the current state of understanding and developments.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, United Kingdom; and Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Wallotstrasse 19, 14193 Berlin, Germany; k.j.gaston(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher University of Chicago Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2254  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Xia, C.; Yeh, A.G.-O.; Zhang, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Analyzing spatial relationships between urban land use intensity and urban vitality at street block level: A case study of five Chinese megacities Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning  
  Volume (down) 193 Issue Pages 103669  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Urban sprawl in urbanizing China has resulted in a series of ecological and environmental problems. Urban planners have been committed to promoting compact development through high-density and mixed land use. However, a problem brought by such compact urban form is the mismatch between physical spaces and socio-economic activities. To date, minimal research has been conducted using spatial statistics to study this issue at the local scales. Moreover, urban night-time vitality has been consistently ignored in existing studies. In the current work, urban land use intensity was analyzed on the basis of street block density and typology, and urban daytime and night-time vitality were measured using small catering business and night-time light data, respectively. The spatial relationships between urban land use intensity and urban vitality were investigated using a local indicator of spatial association (LISA), and five megacities in China were taken as a case study to examine whether variations exist between different cities. Results showed a significant positive spatial autocorrelation between urban land use intensity and urban vitality according to global statistics. Therefore, socio-economic activities are more likely to be abundant in densely developed urban areas. However, local spatial mismatches were found in the five megacities, indicating overcrowded or underutilized urban spaces in all the cities. These relationships were associated with different urban areas (urbanized before 1995 and during 1995–2015), land use conditions (function and mixture) and time periods (day and night). The results of this work will provide a comprehensive understanding of compact city and sustainability.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2697  
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Author Bennett, M.M.; Smith, L.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Advances in using multitemporal night-time lights satellite imagery to detect, estimate, and monitor socioeconomic dynamics Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume (down) 192 Issue Pages 176-197  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Since the late 1990s, remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) satellite imagery has been shown to correlate with socioeconomic parameters including urbanization, economic activity, and population. More recent research demonstrates that multitemporal NTL data can serve as a reliable proxy for change over time in these variables whether they are increasing or decreasing. Time series analysis of NTL data is especially valuable for detecting, estimating, and monitoring socioeconomic dynamics in countries and subnational regions where reliable official statistics may be lacking. Until 2012, multitemporal NTL imagery came primarily from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program – Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), for which digital imagery is available from 1992 to 2013. In October 2011, the launch of NASA/NOAA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, whose Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor has a Day/Night Band (DNB) specifically designed for capturing radiance from the Earth at night, marked the start of a new era in NTL data collection and applications. In light of these advances, this paper reviews progress in using multitemporal DMSP-OLS and VIIRS imagery to analyze urbanization, economic, and population dynamics across a range of geographic scales. An overview of data corrections and processing for comparison of multitemporal NTL imagery is provided, followed by a meta-analysis and integrative synthesis of these studies. Figures are included that visualize the capabilities of DMSP-OLS and VIIRS to capture socioeconomic change in the post-Soviet Russian Far East and war-torn Syria, respectively. Finally, future directions for NTL research are suggested, particularly in the areas of determining the fundamental causes of observed light and in leveraging VIIRS' superior sensitivity and spatial and radiometric resolution.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2024  
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Author Russart, K.L.G.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light at night as an environmental endocrine disruptor Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume (down) 190 Issue Pages 82-89  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals  
  Abstract Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past approximately 30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects. Indeed, there is increasing evidence for a role of LAN in human health, including disruption of circadian regulation and melatonin signaling, metabolic dysregulation, cancer risk, and disruption of other hormonally-driven systems. These effects are not limited to humans; domesticated animals as well as wildlife are also exposed to LAN, and at risk for disrupted circadian rhythms. Here, we review data that support the role of LAN as an endocrine disruptor in humans to be considered in treatments and lifestyle suggestions. We also present the effects of LAN in other animals, and discuss the potential for ecosystem-wide effects of artificial LAN. This can inform decisions in agricultural practices and urban lighting decisions to avoid unintended outcomes.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28870443 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1719  
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Author Bailey, L.A.; Brigham, R.M.; Bohn, S.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Smit, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume (down) 190 Issue 2 Pages 367–374  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; bats; moths; insects; mammals  
  Abstract Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.  
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31139944 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2511  
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