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Author Grove, L.
Title Reducing Acadia's Light Pollution Type Manuscript
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Conservation; Society; Economics; Acadia National Park; Maine; benefit cost analysis; astrotourism; contingent valuation method; dark sky places; dark sky park
Abstract Acadia National Park is among the most visited national parks in the United States, attracting millions of people per year. Thousands of those visitors come to the park for “astro-tourism,” as Acadia has become one of the premier stargazing locations on the east coast. There remains, however, the continued threat from light pollution from the surrounding communities that negatively affects Acadia's darkness, contributing to a lesser visitor experience and potentially harming native ecosystems. Although park management and community organizations have engaged in significant efforts to decrease Acadia's nighttime light levels and raise awareness among visitors and locals regarding the importance of darkness, the park still seek to continue to decrease light pollution. This report developed policy options that could help solve the long-term policy goal of decreasing nighttime lighting levels within and around Acadia while also using the International Dark-Sky Association's Dark-Sky Park designation requirements as a reasonable, short-term policy benchmark.

Working within existing organizations, the policy options crafted to address Acadia’s nighttime lighting levels were analyzed both qualitatively through a criteria evaluation and quantitatively through a Benefit Cost Analysis.

The options included 1) the formation of a Darkness Coalition within the League of Towns, 2) a reimagining of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Dark-Sky Project into the Dark-Sky Taskforce, 3) the creation of a Lighting Consultant position paid through the Friends of Acadia Wild Acadia initiative, and 4) the combination of Coalition and the Taskforce into the League of Towns – Dark-Sky Partnership (LOT-DSP). The report recommends the adoption of Option 4 – the creation of the LOT – DSP. While this option does not provide the greatest estimated monetary net value compared to the Status Quo in the quantitative evaluation, it still provides an estimated benefit of about $105 million over the course of five years and is the strongest option in the qualitative analysis. The LOT – DSP provides the best opportunity for Acadia to achieve legitimate and long-lasting nighttime light level reduction.
Address Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, Garrett Hall, 235 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400893, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4893 USA; locher.grove(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis
Publisher University of Virginia Place of Publication Charlottesville Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1449
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Author Alzahrani, H.S.; Khuu, S.K.; Roy, M.
Title Modelling the effect of commercially available blue-blocking lenses on visual and non-visual functions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom
Volume (up) in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; blue-blocking lenses; non-visual functions; transmittance; visual functions
Abstract BACKGROUND: Blue-blocking lenses (BBLs) are marketed as providing retinal protection from acute and cumulative exposure to blue light over time. The selective reduction in visible wavelengths transmitted through BBLs is known to influence the photosensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, which affects both visual and non-visual functions. This study measured the spectral transmittance of BBLs and evaluated their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, circadian rhythm, and protection from photochemical retinal damage. METHODS: Seven different types of BBLs from six manufacturers and untinted control lenses with three different powers (+2.00 D, -2.00 D and Plano) were evaluated. The whiteness index of BBLs used in this study was calculated using Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) Standard Illuminates D65, and CIE 1964 Standard with a 2 degrees Observer. The protective qualities of BBLs and their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, and circadian rhythm were evaluated based on their spectral transmittance, which was measured with a Cary 5,000 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. RESULTS: BBLs were found to reduce blue light (400-500 nm) by 6-43 per cent, providing significant protection from photochemical retinal damage compared to control lenses (p </= 0.05). All BBLs were capable of reducing the perception of blue colours, scotopic sensitivities and circadian sensitivities by 5-36 per cent, 5-24 per cent, and 4-27 per cent, respectively depending on the brand and power of the lens. CONCLUSION: BBLs can provide some protection to the human eye from photochemical retinal damage by reducing a portion of blue light that may affect visual and non-visual performances, such as those critical to scotopic vision, blue perception, and circadian rhythm.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0816-4622 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31441122 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2654
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Author Albreiki, Mohammed S.
Title The effects of light at night and/or melatonin on hormones, metabo- lites, appetite control, vascular function, and behavioural responses. Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication University of Surrey Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Light at night (LAN) is a major factor in disruption of SCN function, including melatonin suppression. Melatonin has been linked to a variety of biological processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, vascular parameters, appetite, and behaviour. However, few human studies have investigated the effect of LAN and suppressed melatonin prior to and after an evening meal. The current thesis aims to investigate the impact of light at night and/or mela- tonin on hormones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function, and behaviour prior to and after an evening test meal in healthy participants. The first study investigated the effect of dim or bright light conditions on hor- mones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function and behavioural responses. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced, lipid profiles altered and salivary melatonin suppressed under bright light compared to dim light conditions. Subjec- tive mood was improved and appetite scores increased in bright light. No differences were seen in vascular parameters. Although clear differences were apparent it could not be determined whether the effects were due to the light at night, the absence of melatonin or a combination of the two. The second study involved three conditions with the administration of exogenous melatonin 90 mins before the evening test meal under bright and dim light conditions compared to bright light alone with the consequent melatonin suppression. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced and lipid profile altered in bright light when melatonin was suppressed compared to the two conditions with exogenous melatonin. Mood was improved and appetite increased with lower leptin levels and elevated wrist temperature with bright light and suppressed melatonin. Statistical analysis showed that the major effects were due to melatonin. These studies demonstrate a possible role for melatonin in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism when eating late at night which may have implications for shift-workers.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1747
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Author Clanton, N.; Gibbons, R.; Garcia, J.; Barber, M.
Title Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study Type Report
Year 2014 Publication Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Abbreviated Journal NEEA
Volume (up) Issue E14-286 Pages
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Planning; Vision
Abstract The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and the City of Seattle partnered to evaluate the future of solid state street lighting in the Pacific Northwest with a two-night demonstration in Seattle's Ballard neighborhood in March 2012. The study evaluates the effectiveness of LED streetlights on nighttime driver object detection visibility as function of light source spectral distribution (color temperature in degrees K) and light distribution. Clanton & Associates and VTTI also evaluated adaptive lighting (tuning of streetlights during periods of reduced vehicular and pedestrian activity) at three levels: one hundred percent of full light output, fifty percent of full light output, and twenty-five percent of full light output. The study, led by Clanton & Associates, Continuum Industries, and the VTTI, built upon previous visual performance studies conducted in Anchorage, Alaska; San Diego, California; and San Jose, California. The use of LED technology for city street lighting is becoming more widespread. While these lights are primarily touted for their energy efficiency, the combination of LEDs with advanced control technology, changes to lighting criteria, and a better understanding of human mesopic (low light level) visibility creates an enormous potential for energy savings and improved motorist and pedestrian visibility and safety. Data from these tests support the following statements: LED luminaires with a correlated color temperature of 4100K provide the highest detection distance, including statistically significantly better detection distance when compared to HPS luminaires of higher wattage. The non-uniformity of the lighting on the roadway surface provides a visibility enhancement and greater contrast for visibility. Contrast of objects, both positive and negative, is a better indicator of visibility than is average luminance level. Dimming the LED luminaires to fifty percent of IES RP-8 levels did not significantly reduce object detection distance in dry pavement conditions. Participants perceived dimming of sidewalks as less acceptable than dimming to the same level on the roadway. Asymmetric lighting did reduce glare and performed similarly to the symmetric lighting at the same color temperature (4100K).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1763
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Author Bagan, H.; Borjigin, H.; Yamagata, Y.
Title Assessing nighttime lights for mapping the urban areas of 50 cities across the globe Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science Abbreviated Journal Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
Volume (up) Issue Pages 2399808317752926
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Nighttime data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System have been widely used to map urban/built-up areas (hereafter referred to as “built-up area”), but to date there has not been a geographically comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of using nighttime lights data to map urban areas. We created accurate, convenient, and scalable grid cells based on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System nighttime light pixels. We then calculated the density of Landsat-derived built-up areas within each grid cell. We explored the relationship between Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System nighttime lights data and the density of built-up areas to assess the utility of nighttime lights for mapping urban areas in 50 cities across the globe. We found that the brightness of nighttime lights was only in moderate agreement with the density of built-up areas; moreover, correlations between nighttime lights and Landsat-derived built-up areas were weak. Even in relatively sparsely populated urban regions (where the density of the built-up area is less than 20%), the highest correlation coefficient (R2) was only 0.4. Furthermore, nighttime lights showed lighted areas that extended beyond the area of large cities, and nighttime lights reduced the area of small cities. The results suggest that it is difficult to use the regression model to calibrate the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System nighttime lights to fit urban built up areas.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2399-8083 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1795
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