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Author O'Connell, H. A.
Title Streetlights in the city: understanding the distribution of Houston streetlights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Society
Abstract There are at least 173,724 streetlights in the city of Houston, or about 15 streetlights per mile of roadway in the average Houston neighborhood. But there is wide variation in streetlight density across those neighborhoods. This report offers several important findings. First, black and Hispanic neighborhoods have higher concentrations of streetlights than white neighborhoods. Second, mixed-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of streetlights than the city’s wealthiest and poorest neighborhoods.

In the context of this discussion, we should consider the possibility that some areas of the city are overly lit in addition to being concerned about the places without enough lights. There may be a point at which having more lights actually becomes a negative. We need to get a better understanding of the lived consequences of the level of available lighting before making any further decisions regarding city streetlights.
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Publisher Rice | Kinder Institute for urban research Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2068
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Author Russo, D., Ancillotto, L., Cistrone, L., Libralato, N., Domer, A., Cohen, S., Korine, C.
Title Effects of artificial illumination on drinking bats: a field test in forest and desert habitats Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Bats show pronounced and often‐adverse reactions to artificial illumination at night (ALAN) when commuting, roosting or foraging. ALAN also affects bat drinking activity, at least when lighting occurs over short intervals. We tested whether continuous illumination of drinking sites over 4‐h periods would lead bats to tolerate ALAN and resume drinking in the course of the night. We conducted our experiments in forest (Italy) and desert (Israel) sites to test whether in the latter habitat, where water is scarce, a greater motivation to drink might lead to less adverse bat reactions. We recorded 6853 drinking buzzes and 1647 feeding buzzes from 17 species and one species group. In the forest sites, species that hunt in open spaces or along forest edges showed little (P. pipistrellus and H. savii) or no (P. kuhlii and N. leisleri) drinking activity decrease, while those associated with forest interiors (Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus auritus and bats in the genus Myotis) exhibited a strong negative response. In the desert sites, all studied species reduced drinking activity, yet in the desert populations of P. kuhlii we recorded stronger adverse reactions only far from human settlements. The harsh reactions that the desert bat species showed towards ALAN rule out any effect of a greater motivation to drink. Illumination had no effect on foraging by most species, except in the forest sites, where Pipistrellus kuhlii and Nyctalus leisleri increased foraging when the light was on, and in the desert sites, where Hypsugo bodenheimeri decreased foraging in such situations. The progressive human encroachment that is taking place in many world regions on both forests and especially deserts, where few sites for drinking are available, may jeopardize bat populations also through increased exposure to ALAN.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2075
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Author Robertson, B.A., Horváth, G.
Title Color polarization vision mediates the strength of an evolutionary trap Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Wiley Evolutionary Applications Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) In press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Evolutionary traps are scenarios in which animals are fooled by rapidly changing conditions into preferring poor-quality resources over those that better improve survival and reproductive success. The maladaptive attraction of aquatic insects to artificial sources of horizontally polarized light (e.g., glass buildings, asphalt roads) has become a first model system by which scientists can investigate the behavioral mechanisms that cause traps to occur. We employ this field-based system to experimentally investigate (a) in which portion(s) of the spectrum are polarizationally water-imitating reflectors attractive to nocturnal terrestrial and aquatics insects, and (b) which modern lamp types result in greater attraction in this typical kind of nocturnal polarized light pollution. We found that most aquatic taxa exhibited preferences for lamps based upon their color spectra, most having lowest preference for lamps emitting blue and red light. Yet, despite previously established preference for higher degrees of polarization of reflected light, most aquatic insect families were attracted to traps based upon their unpolarized spectrum. Chironomid midges, alone, showed a preference for the color of lamplight in both the horizontally polarized and unpolarized spectra indicating only this family has evolved to use light in this color range as a source of information to guide its nocturnal habitat selection. These results demonstrate that the color of artificial lighting can exacerbate or reduce its attractiveness to aquatic insects, but that the strength of attractiveness of nocturnal evolutionary traps, and so their demographic consequences, is primarily driven by unpolarized light pollution. This focuses management attention on limiting broad-spectrum light pollution, as well as its intentional deployment to attract insects back to natural habitats.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2076
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Author Foth, M., Caldwell, G.A.
Title More-than-human media architecture Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) Issue Pages
Keywords Architecture; Lighting; Planning
Abstract We consider some of the planetary conditions and global circumstances that both research and practice of media architecture are embedded within, such as climate change, pollution, resource consumption, and loss of biodiversity. While there has been a notable increase in emphasis on participation and engagement in design and use, with the aim to increase the involvement of diverse and often marginalised citizens, a human-centred approach to media architecture comes with its own set of problems. In this paper, we want to draw the attention of the media architecture community to the fallacy of human exceptionalism and anthropocentrism. We present a critical review of examples of media architecture projects and installations that question our understanding of urban space as separate from nature, and designed primarily for humans and just humans. Informed by studies in disciplines such as science and technology studies, critical geography, urban planning, and interaction design, we use insights derived from our review to discuss ways towards a more-than-human approach to media architecture. We conclude by proposing for discussion nascent design considerations for media architecture to go beyond the needs of just humans and to consider new ways to appreciate and cater for our broader ecological entanglements with plants, animals, and the environment at large.
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Area Expedition Conference Media Architecture Biennale, 13-16 November 2018, Beijing, China
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2081
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Author Stone, T.
Title Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Topoi Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) In press Issue Pages
Keywords Society
Abstract Grounded in the practical problem of light pollution, this paper examines the aesthetic dimensions of urban and natural darkness, and its impact on how we perceive and evaluate nighttime lighting. It is argued that competing notions of the sublime, manifested through artificial illumination and the natural night sky respectively, reinforce a geographical dualism between cities and wilderness. To challenge this spatial differentiation, recent work in urban-focused environmental ethics, as well as environmental aesthetics, are utilized to envision the moral and aesthetic possibilities of a new urban nocturnal sublime. Through articulating the aspirations and constraints of a new urban nocturnal experience, this paper elucidates the axiological dimensions of light pollution, draws attention to nightscapes as a site of importance for urban-focused (environmental) philosophy, and examines the enduring relevance of the sublime for both the design of nighttime illumination and the appreciation of the night sky.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2098
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