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Author Yin, J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhang, B.
Title Identification of Poverty Areas by Remote Sensing and Machine Learning: A Case Study in Guizhou, Southwest China Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 11
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract As an objective social phenomenon, poverty has accompanied the vicissitudes of human society, which is a chronic dilemma hindering human civilization. Remote sensing data, such as nighttime lights imagery, provides abundant poverty-related information that can be related to poverty. However, it may be insufficient to rely merely on nighttime lights data, because poverty is a comprehensive problem, and poverty identification may be affected by topography, especially in some developing countries or regions where agriculture accounts for a large proportion. Therefore, some geographical features may be necessary for supplements. With the support of the random forest machine learning method, we extracted 23 spatial features base on remote sensing including nighttime lights data and geographical data, and carried out the poverty identification in Guizhou Province, China, since 2012. Compared with the identifications using support vector machines and the artificial neural network, random forest showed a better accuracy. The results supported that nighttime lights and geographical features are better than those only by nighttime lights features. From 2012 to 2019, the identified poor counties in Guizhou Province showed obvious dynamic spatiotemporal characteristics. The number of poor counties has decreased consistently and contiguous poverty-stricken areas have fragmented; the number of poor counties in the northeast and southwest regions decreased faster than other areas. The reduction in poverty probability exhibited a pattern of spreading from the central and northern regions to the periphery parts. The poverty reduction was relatively slow in areas with large slope and large topographic relief. When poor counties are adjacent to more non-poor counties, they can get rid of poverty easier. This study provides a method for feature selection and recognition of poor counties by remote sensing images and offers new insights into poverty identification and regional sustainable development for other developing countries and areas.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3220
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Sharma, R.; Ma, Q.
Title Switching diseased cells from cytosolic aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation: A metabolic rhythm regulated by melatonin? Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 70 Issue 1 Pages e12677
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Human Health; Alzheimer disease; Warburg metabolism; cancer; circadian rhythm; fibrosis; mitochondria
Abstract This commentary reviews the concept of the circadian melatonin rhythm playing an essential role in reducing the development of diseases such as solid tumors which adopt cytosolic aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) to support their enhanced metabolism. Experimental data show that solid mammary tumors depend on aerobic glycolysis during the day but likely revert to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at night for ATP production. This conversion of diseased cells during the day to a healthier phenotype at night occurs under control of the circulating melatonin rhythm. When the nocturnal melatonin rise is inhibited by light exposure at night, cancer cells function in the diseased state 24/7. The ability of melatonin to switch cancer cells as well as other diseased cells, for example, Alzheimer disease, fibrosis, hyperactivation of macrophages, etc, from aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may be a basic protective mechanism to reduce pathologies.
Address Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32621295 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3221
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Author Niu, W.; Xia, H.; Wang, R.; Pan, L.; Meng, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, R.; Zhao, X.; Bian, X.; Zhao, W.
Title Research on Large-Scale Urban Shrinkage and Expansion in the Yellow River Affected Area Using Night Light Data Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 5
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract As the land use issue, caused by urban shrinkage in China, is becoming more and more prominent, research on urban shrinkage and expansion has become particularly challenging and urgent. Based on the points of interest (POI) data, this paper redefines the scope, quantity, and area of natural cities by using threshold methods, which accurately identify the shrinkage and expansion of cities in the Yellow River affected area using night light data in 2013 and 2018. The results show that: (1) there are 3130 natural cities (48,118.75 km2) in the Yellow River affected area, including 604 shrinking cities (8407.50 km2) and 2165 expanding cities (32,972.75 km2). (2) The spatial distributions of shrinking and expanding cities are quite different. The shrinking cities are mainly located in the upper Yellow River affected area, except for the administrative cities of Lanzhou and Yinchuan; the expanding cities are mainly distributed in the middle and lower Yellow River affected area, and the administrative cities of Lanzhou and Yinchuan. (3) Shrinking and expanding cities are typically smaller cities. The research results provide a quick data supported approach for regional urban planning and land use management, for when regional and central governments formulate the outlines of urban development monitoring and regional planning.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3225
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Author Jiang, S.; Wei, G.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Xu, M.; Wang, Q.; Das, P.; Liu, B.
Title Detecting the Dynamics of Urban Growth in Africa Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Land Abbreviated Journal Land
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 13
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Africa has been experiencing a rapid urbanization process, which may lead to an increase in unsustainable land use and urban poverty. Assessing the spatiotemporal characteristics of urbanization dynamics is especially important and needed for the sustainable development of Africa. Satellite-based nighttime light (NTL) data are widely used to monitor the dynamics of urban growth from global to local scales. In this study, urban growth patterns across Africa were analyzed and discussed using stable nighttime light datasets obtained from DMSP/OLS (the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Line-scan System) spanning from 1992 to 2013. We partitioned the nighttime lighting areas into three types (low, medium, and high) using thresholds derived from the Brightness Gradient (BG) method. Our results indicated that built-up areas in Africa have increased rapidly, particularly those areas with low nighttime lighting types. Countries with higher urbanization levels in Africa, like South Africa, Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and Libya, were leading the brightening trend. The distribution of nighttime lighting types was consistent with the characteristics of urban development, with high nighttime lighting types showed up at the urban center, whereas medium and low nighttime lighting types appeared in the urban-rural transition zone and rural areas respectively. The impacts of these findings on the future of African cities will be further proposed.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-445X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3233
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Author Sepp, T.; Webb, E.; Simpson, R.K.; Giraudeau, M.; McGraw, K.J.; Hutton, P.
Title Light at night reduces digestive efficiency of developing birds: an experiment with king quail Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Die Naturwissenschaften Abbreviated Journal Naturwissenschaften
Volume 108 Issue 1 Pages 4
Keywords Animals; Avian; Development; Digestion; Excalfactoria chinensis; Light pollution; Steatocrit
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) exposes animals to a novel environmental stimulus, one that is generally thought to be maladaptive. ALAN-related health problems have received little attention in non-model species, and we generally know little about the nutritional-physiological impacts of ALAN, especially in young animals. Here, we use a novel application of the acid steatocrit method to experimentally assess changes in digestive efficiency of growing king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) in response to ALAN. Two weeks after hatching, quail were split into two groups (n = 20-21 per group): overnight-light-treated vs. overnight-dark-treated. When the chicks were 3 weeks old, the experimental group was exposed to weak blue light (ca. 0.3 lux) throughout the entire night for 6 consecutive weeks, until all the chicks had achieved sexual maturation. Fecal samples for assessing digestive efficiency were collected every week. We found that digestive efficiency of quail was reduced by ALAN at two time points from weeks 4 to 9 after hatching (quail reach adulthood by week 9). The negative effect of ALAN on digestion coincided with the period of fastest skeletal growth, which suggests that ALAN may reduce digestive efficiency when energetic demands of growth are at their highest. Interestingly, growth rate was not influenced by ALAN. This suggests that either the negative physiological impacts of ALAN may be concealed when food is provided ad libitum, the observed changes in digestive efficiency were too small to affect growth or condition, or that ALAN-exposed birds had reduced energy expenditure. Our results illustrate that the health impacts of ALAN on wild animals should not be restricted to traditional markers like body mass or growth rate, but instead on a wide array of integrated physiological traits.
Address School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-1042 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33399962 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3236
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