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Author Wallner, S.; Kocifaj, M.; Komar, L.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.
Title Night-sky imaging as a potential tool for characterization of total lumen output from small and medium-sized cities Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 494 Issue 4 Pages 5008-5017
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In this article, the asymptotic formula developed in past work and applied to predict skyglow due to distant sources was evolved, with the objective of characterizing small and medium-sized cities in the observer's surroundings. To enable this, a combination of theoretical computations and in situ measurements is needed, aiming to distinguish between dominant and smaller light-emitting sources, with the latter usually being camouflaged when measuring the night sky. Furthermore, for numerical modelling of skyglow, few of the most important parameters, specifically the amount of total lumens installed and radiated to the upward hemisphere, can be derived. Astronomical observatories, in particular, can profit from this concept, since they are usually situated far away from large cities but can still be surrounded by smaller villages and towns. We present a detailed description of how theoretical computations are combined with all-sky photometry in order to obtain the properties mentioned. Results are compared with satellite data, showing that, regarding approximations undertaken for processing, they are comparable, underlining the functionality of our approach. The idea of including in situ observations enables us to quantify the impact of small and medium-sized cities globally and independent of location, as long as measurements were conducted outside light domes. In addition, the presented work may be of major interest to the light-pollution community if conducting long-term observations of cities, since the quality of commonly used satellite data is going to decrease in the future, due to blindness in short wavelengths and upcoming conversions of public lighting systems to blue-enlightened LEDs.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2911
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Author Marín-Gómez, O.H.; García-Arroyo, M.; Sánchez-Sarria, C.E.; Sosa-López, J.R.; Santiago-Alarcon, D.; MacGregor-Fors, I.
Title Nightlife in the city: drivers of the occurrence and vocal activity of a tropical owl Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Avian Research Abbreviated Journal Avian Res
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract Background

Cities differ from non-urban environments by the intensity, scale, and extent of anthropogenic pressures, which can drive the occurrence, physiology, and behavior of the organisms thriving in these settings. Traits as green cover often predict the occurrence patterns of bird species in urban areas. Yet, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) could also limit the presence and disrupt the behavior of birds. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge about the influence of urbanization through noise and light pollution on nocturnal bird species ecology. In this study, we assessed the role of green cover, noise, and light pollution on the occurrence and vocal activity of the Mottled Owl (Ciccaba virgata) in the city of Xalapa (Mexico).

Methods

We obtained soundscape recordings in 61 independent sites scattered across the city of Xalapa using autonomous recording units. We performed a semi-automated acoustic analysis of the recordings, corroborating all Mottled Owl vocalizations. We calculated two measures of anthropogenic noise at each study site: daily noise (during 24 h) and masking noise (mean noise amplitude at night per site that could mask the owl’s vocalizations). We further performed generalized linear models to relate green cover, ALAN, daily noise, and masking noise in relation to the owl’s occurrence (i.e., detected, undetected). We also ran linear models to assess relationships among the beginning and ending of vocal activity with ALAN, and with the anthropogenic and masking noise levels at the moment of which vocalizations were emitted. Finally, we explored variations of the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl measured as vocalization rate across time.

Results

The presence of Mottled Owls increased with the size of green cover and decreased with increases in both artificial light at night and noise levels. At the temporal scale, green cover was positively related with the ending of the owl’s vocal activity, while daily noise and ALAN levels were not related to the timing and vocal output (i.e., number of vocalizations). Furthermore, the Mottled Owl showed a marked peak of vocal activity before dawn than after dusk. Although anthropogenic noise levels varied significantly across the assessed time, we did not find an association between high vocal output during time periods with lower noise levels.

Conclusions

Spatially, green cover area was positively related with the presence of the Mottled Owl in Xalapa, while high noise and light pollution were related to its absence. At a temporal scale, daily noise and ALAN levels were not related with the timing and vocal output. This suggests that instead of environmental factors, behavioral contexts such as territoriality and mate interactions could drive the vocal activity of the Mottled Owl. Further studies need to incorporate a wider seasonal scale in order to explore the variation of different vocalizations of this species in relation to environmental and biological factors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2053-7166 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2912
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Author Liu, J.; Cai, J.; Lin, S.; Zhao, J.
Title Analysis of Factors Affecting a Driver’s Driving Speed Selection in Low Illumination Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Advanced Transportation Abbreviated Journal Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2020 Issue Pages Article ID 2817801
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract To better understand a driver’s driving speed selection behaviour in low illumination, a self-designed questionnaire was applied to investigate driving ability in low illumination, and the influencing factors of low-illumination driving speed selection behaviour were discussed from the driver’s perspective. The reliability and validity of 243 questionnaires were tested, and multiple linear regression was used to analyse the comprehensive influence of demographic variables, driving speed in a low-illumination environment with street lights and driving ability on speed selection behaviour in low illumination without street lights. Pearson’s correlation test showed that there was no correlation among age, education, accidents in the past 3 years, and speed selection behaviour in low illumination, but gender, driving experience, number of night-driving days per week, and average annual mileage were significantly correlated with speed selection behaviour. In a low-illumination environment, driving ability has a significant influence on a driver’s speed selection behaviour. Technical driving ability under low-illumination conditions of street lights has the greatest influence on speed selection behaviour on a road with a speed limit of 120 km/h (β = 0.51). Risk perception ability has a significant negative impact on speed selection behaviour on roads with speed limits of 80 km/h and 120 km/h (β = −0.25 and β = −0.34, respectively). Driving speed in night-driving environment with street lights also has a positive influence on speed selection behaviour in low illumination (β = 0.61; β = 0.28; β = 0.37).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0197-6729 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2913
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Author Li, C.; Zhu, H.; Ye, X.; Jiang, C.; Dong, J.; Wang, D.; Wu, Y.
Title Study on Average Housing Prices in the Inland Capital Cities of China by Night-time Light Remote Sensing and Official Statistics Data Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 7732
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract In this paper, the annually average Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) night-time light data is first proposed as a surrogate indicator to mine and forecast the average housing prices in the inland capital cities of China. First, based on the time-series analysis of individual cities, five regression models with gross error elimination are established between average night-time light intensity (ANLI) and average commercial residential housing price (ACRHP) adjusted by annual inflation rate or not from 2002 to 2013. Next, an optimal model is selected for predicting the ACRHPs in 2014 of these capital cities, and then verified by the interval estimation and corresponding official statistics. Finally, experimental results show that the quadratic polynomial regression is the optimal mining model for estimating the ACRHP without adjustments in most provincial capitals and the predicted ACRHP of these cities are almost in their interval estimations except for the overrated Chengdu and the underestimated Wuhan, while the adjusted ACRHP is all in prediction interval. Overall, this paper not only provides a novel insight into time-series ACRHP data mining based on time-series ANLI for capital city scale but also reveals the potentiality and mechanism of the comprehensive ANLI to characterize the complicated ACRHP. Besides, other factors influencing housing prices, such as the time-series lags of government policy, are tested and analysed in this paper.
Address Key Laboratory for Geographical Process Analysing and Modelling, and College of Urban and Environmental Science, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430079, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32382080 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2914
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Author Riedel, C.S.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Hannibal, J.
Title Altered light induced EGR1 expression in the SCN of PACAP deficient mice Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages e0232748
Keywords Animals
Abstract The brain's biological clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and generates circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. The circadian clock needs daily adjustment by light to stay synchronized (entrained) with the astronomical 24 h light/dark cycle. Light entrainment occurs via melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) and two neurotransmitters of the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), PACAP and glutamate, which transmit light information to the SCN neurons. In SCN neurons, light signaling involves the immediate-early genes Fos, Egr1 and the clock genes Per1 and Per2. In this study, we used PACAP deficient mice to evaluate PACAP's role in light induced gene expression of EGR1 in SCN neurons during early (ZT17) and late (ZT23) subjective night at high (300 lux) and low (10 lux) white light exposure. We found significantly lower levels of both EGR1 mRNA and protein in the SCN in PACAP deficient mice compared to wild type mice at early subjective night (ZT17) exposed to low but not high light intensity. No difference was found between the two genotypes at late night (ZT23) at neither light intensities. In conclusion, light mediated EGR1 induction in SCN neurons at early night at low light intensities is dependent of PACAP signaling. A role of PACAP in shaping synaptic plasticity during light stimulation at night is discussed.
Address Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen NV, Denmark
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32379800; PMCID:PMC7205239 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2915
Permanent link to this record