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Author Chu, L., Oloo, F., Sudmanns, M., Tiede, D., Hölbling, D.,Blaschke, T., & Teleoaca, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring long-term shoreline dynamics and human activities in the Hangzhou Bay, China, combining daytime and nighttime EO data Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Big Earth Data Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Shorelines are vulnerable to anthropogenic activities including urbanization, land reclamation and sediment loading. Shoreline changes may be a reflection of the degradation of coastal ecosystems because of human activities. Understanding the shoreline dynamics is, therefore, a topic of global concern. Earth observation data, such as multi-temporal satellite images, are an important resource for assessing changes in coastal ecosystems. In this research, we used Google Earth Engine (GEE) to monitor and map historical shoreline dynamics in the Hangzhou Bay in China where the Qiantang River flows into the East China Sea. Specifically, we aimed to capture and quantify both the spatial and temporal shoreline changes and to assess the link between anthropogenic activities and shoreline changes on the integrity of this coastal area. We implemented a Tasselled Cap analysis (TCA) on Landsat imagery from 1985 to 2018 in GEE to calculate the wetness coefficient. We then applied Otsu method for automatic image thresholding on the wetness coefficient to detect waterbodies and shoreline changes. Further, we adopted the nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) from 1992 to 2013 as a proxy of human activities. The results show that in the hotspot areas, the shoreline has moved by more than 5 km in the last decades, accounting for approximately 900 km2 of land accretion. Within this area, the human activity, indicated by the intensity of nighttime light, increased significantly. The results of this work reveal the influence of human activities on the shoreline dynamics and can support policies that promote the sustainable use and conservation of coastal environments. Our methodology can be transferred and applied to other coastal zones in various regions and scaled up to larger areas.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2952  
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Author Nam, K. H., Kim, C. H., & Nam, K. H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Research on the Improvement of Visibility Using Low Deck Lighting in Bad Weather Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 186-193  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract We investigate a fog-detection CCT control system using low deck lighting as a solution to the forward visibility of pole-type street lamps employed on existing roads. The lighting standards were met with a light source that has less compared with those of pole-type street lamps. The results show that the transmission rate was increased by changing the color temperature by automatically recognizing fog in bad weather and minimizing the phenomenon of lighting. In addition, it was allowed to create a safer and more comfortable driving environment for drivers owing to flicker or light pollution of existing pole-type street lamps. As a result, if lighting is used at a lower level than pole-type street lamps, the accident rate caused by securing the driver's forward visibility can be reduced sharply and existing problems can be resolved.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2953  
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Author Khanduri, M., & Saxena, A. url  openurl
  Title Ecological light pollution: Consequences for the aquatic ecosystem Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 1-5  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals  
  Abstract Light Pollution is a growing concern for man and the environment. As awareness of the issue grows, various studies reveal its hitherto unnoticed effects on various organisms and ecological processes. The aquatic ecosystem has not been untouched by its influence either, and although much research is still required in the field, an attempt has been made to compile studies and reviews on the effects of Ecological Light Pollution on the world under water. Light has both direct and indirect influences on aquatic systems, and some possible consequences on various aspects of aquatic ecology have been extrapolated from existing studies. It has been attempted to bring attention to some implications that Ecological Light Pollution may have for the aquatic communities, and the aspects that require further investigation for a better understanding of the consequences of increased artificial illumination for entire aquatic ecosystems.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2954  
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Author Müller-Crepon, C. url  openurl
  Title Indirect Rule, Cash Crop Production, and Development in Africa Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Colonial governance in Africa varied considerably in its extent of indirect rule

through precolonial institutions. Assessing the developmental consequences

of indirect rule, this paper argues that it strengthened populations’ bargaining

power and increased public service provision in return for taxation of agricultural produce, in particular cash crops. To test this argument, I exploit variation in the indirectness of colonial rule: whereas British indirect rule increased in the centralization of precolonial institutions, the French implemented more uniform direct rule. I furthermore measure public service provision with georeferenced education outcomes of individuals born and raised under colonial rule and use soils’ suitability for cash crop production as an exogenous proxy for real production. Supporting the theoretical claim, the effect of cash crop suitability on primary education increases with precolonial centralization in former British colonies, but not in French ones. Comparisons of education rates in neighboring ethnic groups with different levels of centralization and ethnic groups cut by British-French boundaries reaffirm this result. Contemporary development outcomes show patterns consistent with persistent effects

of indirect rule in cash crop producing areas. The findings underscore the joint

importance of political institutions and resource endowments in determining

local development.
 
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2956  
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Author Bolliger, J. Hennet, T., Wermelinger, B., Blum, S., Haller, J. & Obrist, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low impact of two LED colors on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity in a peri‑urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Artifcial light at night (ALAN) is an important driver of change in ecological environments of the 21th century. We investigated the impact on nocturnal insect abundance and bat activity of two LED light colors (warm-white 2700 K, cold-white

6500 K) in a peri-urban environment. Bat activity (predominantly Pipistrellus pipistrellus) was largely driven by prey availability (insects), while insect abundance was responsive to nightly weather conditions (precipitation, temperature). Thus, both insects and bats were not diferentially responsive to cold-white or warm-white LEDs. These fndings are largely in contrast with literature, particularly for insects. However, as most published experiments on ALAN were conducted in areas that were lit solely for the purpose of the experiment, we would like to bring forward that (1) adaptation to environmental constraints may play a role in peri-urban environments that have been exposed to ALAN for many decades; or (2) impacts of cold-white LEDs on nocturnal insects may be lower than expected, because nocturnal insects adapted to low-light conditions may be put of by cold white light sources (6500 K).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2957  
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