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Author van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Deijk, J.R.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Visser, M.E.; Veenendaal, E.; Spoelstra, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Experimental light at night has a negative long-term impact on macro-moth populations Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R694-R695  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract The current decline in insect numbers and biomass is likely due to several factors [1] and one of the lesser studied factors is the increased artificial light at night (ALAN). Several negative impacts of ALAN on insects have been described [2] but evidence that it ultimately results in population declines has been circumstantial due to a lack of emperical data [3,4]. Here, we experimentally exposed natural habitats to three colours of artificial light, and a dark control, and studied the impact on moth population numbers during five consecutive years. With this experimental, multi-year study, we can isolate the effects of artificial light from other anthropogenic factors that are often confounded in correlative studies. Furthermore, we can study long-term effects that only become apparent after several years. In the first two years, the number of moths in the illuminated and dark treatments did not differ, but after the second year, the number of moths in the illuminated treatments was lower than in the dark control (Figure 1). This first implies a causal relationship between ALAN and local population declines and thus a contribution of ALAN to insect declines.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3011  
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Author Torres, D.; Tidau, S.; Jenkins, S.; Davies, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial skyglow disrupts celestial migration at night Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology  
  Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R696-R697  
  Keywords Animals; Skyglow  
  Abstract Our understanding of the ecological impacts of direct outdoor lighting has improved substantially over the last decade [1, 2, 3]. In contrast, the impacts of artificial skyglow — that is, artificial light that is scattered in the atmosphere and reflected back to the ground — have received comparatively little attention [4]. Artificial skyglow extends the influence of direct lighting out to hundreds of kilometres from direct sources (for example street lights). It is the most geographically widespread form of light pollution, affecting 23% of the world’s land surface (between 75°N and 60°S) [5]. Artificial skyglow illuminances are two orders of magnitude lower (0.2–0.5 lx) than light pollution from direct artificial light (typically 10–100 lx), but greater than moonlight (0.1–0.3 lx) and light from the Milky Way (0.001 lx). Numerous organisms from across the animal kingdom orient themselves during migrations using lunar compasses [6, 7, 8, 9], and are vulnerable to artificial skyglow across large (10–100 km) spatial scales. Here we demonstrate that artificial skyglow disrupts nightly migrations by the amphipod Talitrus saltator (commonly known as the sandhopper), which uses the sky position of the moon [9, 10] as a guide.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3012  
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Author Hart, E.E.; Fennessy, J.; Hauenstein, S.; Ciuti, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Intensity of giraffe locomotor activity is shaped by solar and lunar zeitgebers Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Moonlight; Animals  
  Abstract Natural cycles of light and darkness shift the balance of risks and gains for animals across space and time. Entrainment to photic cycles allows animals to spatiotemporally adapt their behavioural and physiological processes in line with interplaying ecological factors, such as temperature, foraging efficiency and predation risk. Until recently, our understanding of these chronobiological processes was limited by the difficulties of 24 hr observations. Technological advances in GPS biotelemetry however are now allowing us unprecedented access to long-term, fine-scale activity data. Here we use data derived from frontline technology to present the first large-scale investigation into the effects of natural fluctuations of light and darkness on the locomotor activity patterns of a threatened African mega-herbivore, the giraffe (Giraffa spp.). Using data from a remote population of Angolan giraffe (G. g. angolensis) in the northern Namib Desert, Namibia, we reveal the first full picture of giraffe chronobiology in a landscape of fear. Furthermore, we present clear evidence of the effect of moonlight on the nocturnal activity patterns of large ungulates. Our results are in line with recent research demonstrating that, rather than a fixed internal representation of time (circadian clock), many surface-dwelling ungulates have plastic activity patterns that are vulnerable to modification by external factors including light and temperature. Relatedly, we highlight important conservation management implications of rising temperatures and increasing light pollution on the chronobiology of surface-dwelling mammals.  
  Address Laboratory of Wildlife Ecology and Behaviour, School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32562740 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3013  
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Author Li, X.; Levin, N.; Xie, J.; Li, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Monitoring hourly night-time light by an unmanned aerial vehicle and its implications to satellite remote sensing Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 247 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Skyglow; Instrumentation  
  Abstract Satellite-observed night-time light in urban areas has been widely used as an indicator for socioeconomic development and light pollution. Up to present, the diurnal dynamics of city light during the night, which are important to understand the nature of human activity and the underlying variables explaining night-time brightness, have hardly been investigated by remote sensing techniques due to limitation of the revisit time and spatial resolution of available satellites. In this study, we employed a consumer-grade unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to monitor city light in a study area located in Wuhan City, China, from 8:08 PM, April 15, 2019 to 5:08 AM, April 16, 2019, with an hourly temporal resolution. By using three ground-based Sky Quality Meters (SQMs), we found that the UAV-recorded light brightness was consistent with the ground luminous intensity measured by the SQMs in both the spatial (R2 = 0.72) and temporal dimensions (R2 > 0.94), and that the average city light brightness was consistent with the sky brightness in the temporal dimension (R2 = 0.98), indicating that UAV images can reliably monitor the city's night-time brightness. The temporal analysis showed that different locations had different patterns of temporal changes in their night-time brightness, implying that inter-calibration of two kinds of satellite images with different overpass times would be a challenge. Combining an urban function map of 18 classes and the hourly UAV images, we found that urban functions differed in their temporal light dynamics. For example, the outdoor sports field lost 97.28% of its measured brightness between 8: 08 PM – 4:05 AM, while an administrative building only lost 4.56%, and the entire study area lost 61.86% of its total brightness. Within our study area, the period between 9:06 PM and 10:05 PM was the period with largest amount of light loss. The spectral analysis we conducted showed that city light colors were different in some urban functions, with the major road being the reddest region at 8:08 PM and becoming even redder at 4:05 AM. This preliminary study indicates that UAVs are a good tool to investigate city light at night, and that city light is very complex in both of the temporal and spatial dimensions, requiring comprehensive investigation using more advanced UAV techniques, and emphasizing the need for geostationary platforms for night-time light sensors.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3014  
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Author LeGates, T.A.; Kvarta, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating a path from light to depression Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Animals; Human Health  
  Abstract Our light environment can strongly influence our mental health. Kai An and colleagues dissect the neuronal circuit mediating depression-related behaviors induced by mistimed light input in mice, implicating the nucleus accumbens as the downstream target of the neural pathway between intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and the perihabenular nucleus.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1097-6256 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32555525 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3015  
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