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Author Walbeek, T.J.; Harrison, E.M.; Gorman, M.R.; Glickman, G.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Naturalistic Intensities of Light at Night: A Review of the Potent Effects of Very Dim Light on Circadian Responses and Considerations for Translational Research Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Frontiers in Neurology Abbreviated Journal Front. Neurol.  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Review; Human health; animals; mammals  
  Abstract n this review, we discuss the remarkable potency and potential applications of a form of light that is often overlooked in a circadian context: naturalistic levels of dim light at night (nLAN), equivalent to intensities produced by the moon and stars. It is often assumed that such low levels of light do not produce circadian responses typically associated with brighter light levels. A solid understanding of the impacts of very low light levels is complicated further by the broad use of the somewhat ambiguous term “dim light,” which has been used to describe light levels ranging seven orders of magnitude. Here, we lay out the argument that nLAN exerts potent circadian effects on numerous mammalian species, and that given conservation of anatomy and function, the efficacy of light in this range in humans warrants further investigation. We also provide recommendations for the field of chronobiological research, including minimum requirements for the measurement and reporting of light, standardization of terminology (specifically as it pertains to “dim” light), and ideas for reconsidering old data and designing new studies.  
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  ISSN 1664-2295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3325  
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Author Aulsebrook, A.E.; Johnsson, R.D.; Lesku, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light, Sleep and Performance in Diurnal Birds Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Clocks & Sleep Abbreviated Journal Clocks & Sleep  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages 115-131  
  Keywords Review; Animals  
  Abstract Sleep has a multitude of benefits and is generally considered necessary for optimal performance. Disruption of sleep by extended photoperiods, moonlight and artificial light could therefore impair performance in humans and non-human animals alike. Here, we review the evidence for effects of light on sleep and subsequent performance in birds. There is accumulating evidence that exposure to natural and artificial sources of light regulates and suppresses sleep in diurnal birds. Sleep also benefits avian cognitive performance, including during early development. Nevertheless, multiple studies suggest that light can prolong wakefulness in birds without impairing performance. Although there is still limited research on this topic, these results raise intriguing questions about the adaptive value of sleep. Further research into the links between light, sleep and performance, including the underlying mechanisms and consequences for fitness, could shed new light on sleep evolution and urban ecology.  
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  ISSN 2624-5175 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3328  
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Author Helfrich-Förster, C.; Monecke, S.; Spiousas, I.; Hovestadt, T.; Mitesser, O.; Wehr, T.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Women temporarily synchronize their menstrual cycles with the luminance and gravimetric cycles of the Moon Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci. Adv.  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages eabe1358  
  Keywords Human Health; moonlight  
  Abstract Many species synchronize reproductive behavior with a particular phase of the lunar cycle to increase reproductive success. In humans, a lunar influence on reproductive behavior remains controversial, although the human menstrual cycle has a period close to that of the lunar cycle. Here, we analyzed long-term menstrual recordings of individual women with distinct methods for biological rhythm analysis. We show that women’s menstrual cycles with a period longer than 27 days were intermittently synchronous with the Moon’s luminance and/or gravimetric cycles. With age and upon exposure to artificial nocturnal light, menstrual cycles shortened and lost this synchrony. We hypothesize that in ancient times, human reproductive behavior was synchronous with the Moon but that our modern lifestyles have changed reproductive physiology and behavior.  
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  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3329  
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Author Avtar, R.; Kouser, A.; Kumar, A.; Singh, D.; Misra, P.; Gupta, A.; Yunus, A.P.; Kumar, P.; Johnson, B.A.; Dasgupta, R.; Sahu, N.; Besse Rimba, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Remote Sensing for International Peace and Security: Its Role and Implications Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 439  
  Keywords Review; Remote sensing  
  Abstract Remote sensing technology has seen a massive rise in popularity over the last two decades, becoming an integral part of our lives. Space-based satellite technologies facilitated access to the inaccessible terrains, helped humanitarian teams, support complex emergencies, and contributed to monitoring and verifying conflict zones. The scoping phase of this review investigated the utility of the role of remote sensing application to complement international peace and security activities owing to their ability to provide objective near real-time insights at the ground level. The first part of this review looks into the major research concepts and implementation of remote sensing-based techniques for international peace and security applications and presented a meta-analysis on how advanced sensor capabilities can support various aspects of peace and security. With key examples, we demonstrated how this technology assemblage enacts multiple versions of peace and security: for refugee relief operations, in armed conflicts monitoring, tracking acts of genocide, providing evidence in courts of law, and assessing contravention in human rights. The second part of this review anticipates future challenges that can hinder the applicative capabilities of remote sensing in peace and security. Varying types of sensors pose discrepancies in image classifications and issues like cost, resolution, and difficulty of ground-truth in conflict areas. With emerging technologies and sufficient secondary resources available, remote sensing plays a vital operational tool in conflict-affected areas by supporting an extensive diversity in public policy actions for peacekeeping processes.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3330  
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Author Kwarteng, E.V.S.; Andam-Akorful, S.A.; Kwarteng, A.; Asare, D.-C.B.; Quaye-Ballard, J.A.; Osei, F.B.; Duker, A.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spatial variation in lymphatic filariasis risk factors of hotspot zones in Ghana Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 230  
  Keywords Remote sensing; Ecological niche modelling; Ensemble modelling; Generalised boosted model (GBM); Lymphatic filariasis; Machine learning; Random forest (RF)  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), a parasitic nematode infection, poses a huge economic burden to affected countries. LF endemicity is localized and its prevalence is spatially heterogeneous. In Ghana, there exists differences in LF prevalence and multiplicity of symptoms in the country's northern and southern parts. Species distribution models (SDMs) have been utilized to explore the suite of risk factors that influence the transmission of LF in these geographically distinct regions. METHODS: Presence-absence records of microfilaria (mf) cases were stratified into northern and southern zones and used to run SDMs, while climate, socioeconomic, and land cover variables provided explanatory information. Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Boosted Model (GBM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Surface Range Envelope (SRE), Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), and Random Forests (RF) algorithms were run for both study zones and also for the entire country for comparison. RESULTS: Best model quality was obtained with RF and GBM algorithms with the highest Area under the Curve (AUC) of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. The models predicted high suitable environments for LF transmission in the short grass savanna (northern) and coastal (southern) areas of Ghana. Mainly, land cover and socioeconomic variables such as proximity to inland water bodies and population density uniquely influenced LF transmission in the south. At the same time, poor housing was a distinctive risk factor in the north. Precipitation, temperature, slope, and poverty were common risk factors but with subtle variations in response values, which were confirmed by the countrywide model. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that different variable combinations influence the occurrence of lymphatic filariasis in northern and southern Ghana. Thus, an understanding of the geographic distinctness in risk factors is required to inform on the development of area-specific transmission control systems towards LF elimination in Ghana and internationally.  
  Address Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1471-2458 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33509140; PMCID:PMC7841995 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3331  
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