|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Kumar, A.; Shaw, R.
Title Transforming rural light and dark under planetary urbanisation: Comparing ordinary countrysides in India and the<scp>UK</scp> Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Abbreviated Journal Trans Inst Br Geogr
Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 155-167
Keywords Psychology; Society
Abstract Contemporary global lightscapes are becoming increasingly complex and varied, creating an unusual geography of technological development and diffusion that defies many easy narratives of global interconnectivity. Specifically, new LED lighting technologies are being created through rural experimentation in both Global North and Global South. This makes lighting, and darkness, an interesting lens through which to intervene in debates on the relationship between city, countryside, and planet, specifically addressing the theoretical developments of comparative urbanism and planetary urbanisation. Heading calls to develop conceptual material from both Global North and Global South, we use case studies from Bihar (India) and the North Pennines (UK ) to argue that the changing lighting technologies and practices show how “ordinary countrysides” are contributing to new planetary ways of living. We argue that while there are differences in how darkness and the implementation of artificial lighting are perceived in these sites, there are similarities that reveal an ongoing rural form of planetary living, outside the claims of urbanisation. Particularly, rural lives are marked by a closer connection to the planet, as expressed through experiences of rural darkness. Furthermore, in both sites the tenuous grasp on infrastructure and state services seems to reveal a shared rural experience. These findings suggest shared rural experiences of globalisation, but that the socio‐spatial contexts of places remain important in understanding their location within global systems. Furthermore, we join recent calls to suggest that further exploration of the difference between “global” and “planetary” might add nuance to theoretical trends in urban studies, rural studies, and geography.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0020-2754 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3009
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Moore-Ede, M.; Heitmann, A.; Guttkuhn, R.
Title Circadian Potency Spectrum with Extended Exposure to Polychromatic White LED Light under Workplace Conditions Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Human Health; circadian; human; light spectrum; melatonin; spectral sensitivity
Abstract Electric light has enabled humans to conquer the night, but light exposure at night can disrupt the circadian timing system and is associated with a diverse range of health disorders. To provide adequate lighting for visual tasks without disrupting the human circadian timing system, a precise definition of circadian spectral sensitivity is required. Prior attempts to define the circadian spectral sensitivity curve have used short (</=90-min) monochromatic light exposures in dark-adapted human subjects or in vitro dark-adapted isolated retina or melanopsin. Several lines of evidence suggest that these dark-adapted circadian spectral sensitivity curves, in addition to 430- to 499-nm (blue) wavelength sensitivity, may include transient 400- to 429-nm (violet) and 500- to 560-nm (green) components mediated by cone- and rod-originated extrinsic inputs to intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which decay over the first 2 h of extended light exposure. To test the hypothesis that the human circadian spectral sensitivity in light-adapted conditions may have a narrower, predominantly blue, sensitivity, we used 12-h continuous exposures of light-adapted healthy human subjects to 6 polychromatic white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources with diverse spectral power distributions at recommended workplace levels of illumination (540 lux) to determine their effect on the area under curve of the overnight (2000-0800 h) salivary melatonin. We derived a narrow steady-state human Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity curve with a peak at 477 nm and a full-width half-maximum of 438 to 493 nm. This light-adapted Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity permits the development of spectrally engineered LED light sources to minimize circadian disruption and address the health risks of light exposure at night in our 24/7 society, by alternating between daytime circadian stimulatory white light spectra and nocturnal circadian protective white light spectra.
Address Data Analytics Department, Circadian Technologies, Inc., Stoneham, Massachusetts
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32539484 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3010
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Deijk, J.R.; Donners, M.; Berendse, F.; Visser, M.E.; Veenendaal, E.; Spoelstra, K.
Title Experimental light at night has a negative long-term impact on macro-moth populations Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology
Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R694-R695
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract The current decline in insect numbers and biomass is likely due to several factors [1] and one of the lesser studied factors is the increased artificial light at night (ALAN). Several negative impacts of ALAN on insects have been described [2] but evidence that it ultimately results in population declines has been circumstantial due to a lack of emperical data [3,4]. Here, we experimentally exposed natural habitats to three colours of artificial light, and a dark control, and studied the impact on moth population numbers during five consecutive years. With this experimental, multi-year study, we can isolate the effects of artificial light from other anthropogenic factors that are often confounded in correlative studies. Furthermore, we can study long-term effects that only become apparent after several years. In the first two years, the number of moths in the illuminated and dark treatments did not differ, but after the second year, the number of moths in the illuminated treatments was lower than in the dark control (Figure 1). This first implies a causal relationship between ALAN and local population declines and thus a contribution of ALAN to insect declines.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3011
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Torres, D.; Tidau, S.; Jenkins, S.; Davies, T.
Title Artificial skyglow disrupts celestial migration at night Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal Current Biology
Volume 30 Issue 12 Pages R696-R697
Keywords Animals; Skyglow
Abstract Our understanding of the ecological impacts of direct outdoor lighting has improved substantially over the last decade [1, 2, 3]. In contrast, the impacts of artificial skyglow — that is, artificial light that is scattered in the atmosphere and reflected back to the ground — have received comparatively little attention [4]. Artificial skyglow extends the influence of direct lighting out to hundreds of kilometres from direct sources (for example street lights). It is the most geographically widespread form of light pollution, affecting 23% of the world’s land surface (between 75°N and 60°S) [5]. Artificial skyglow illuminances are two orders of magnitude lower (0.2–0.5 lx) than light pollution from direct artificial light (typically 10–100 lx), but greater than moonlight (0.1–0.3 lx) and light from the Milky Way (0.001 lx). Numerous organisms from across the animal kingdom orient themselves during migrations using lunar compasses [6, 7, 8, 9], and are vulnerable to artificial skyglow across large (10–100 km) spatial scales. Here we demonstrate that artificial skyglow disrupts nightly migrations by the amphipod Talitrus saltator (commonly known as the sandhopper), which uses the sky position of the moon [9, 10] as a guide.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3012
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hart, E.E.; Fennessy, J.; Hauenstein, S.; Ciuti, S.
Title Intensity of giraffe locomotor activity is shaped by solar and lunar zeitgebers Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract Natural cycles of light and darkness shift the balance of risks and gains for animals across space and time. Entrainment to photic cycles allows animals to spatiotemporally adapt their behavioural and physiological processes in line with interplaying ecological factors, such as temperature, foraging efficiency and predation risk. Until recently, our understanding of these chronobiological processes was limited by the difficulties of 24 hr observations. Technological advances in GPS biotelemetry however are now allowing us unprecedented access to long-term, fine-scale activity data. Here we use data derived from frontline technology to present the first large-scale investigation into the effects of natural fluctuations of light and darkness on the locomotor activity patterns of a threatened African mega-herbivore, the giraffe (Giraffa spp.). Using data from a remote population of Angolan giraffe (G. g. angolensis) in the northern Namib Desert, Namibia, we reveal the first full picture of giraffe chronobiology in a landscape of fear. Furthermore, we present clear evidence of the effect of moonlight on the nocturnal activity patterns of large ungulates. Our results are in line with recent research demonstrating that, rather than a fixed internal representation of time (circadian clock), many surface-dwelling ungulates have plastic activity patterns that are vulnerable to modification by external factors including light and temperature. Relatedly, we highlight important conservation management implications of rising temperatures and increasing light pollution on the chronobiology of surface-dwelling mammals.
Address Laboratory of Wildlife Ecology and Behaviour, School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32562740 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3013
Permanent link to this record