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Author Cui, H.; Shen, J.; Huang, Y.; Shen, X.; So, C.W.; Pun, C.S.J.
Title Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network in Wuxi, China Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume in press Issue Pages 107219
Keywords skyglow
Abstract The rapid development of cities has brought tremendous pressure to astronomical observation, energy security, and the ecosystem. Automatic monitoring of night sky brightness (NSB) can help us to understand its regional differences and time variations of NSB effectively and to investigate the human and natural factors which lead to these changes. In this paper, the construction of Wuxi City night sky brightness monitoring network (WBMN) in China is presented. In addition to introducing the equipment and the installation of the network, a brief analysis of the data obtained from the stations will also be presented. The impact of human activities on the NSB is illustrated through its changes during the Spring Festival (lunar new year) and non-festival nights, and through a comparison study between NSB data taken from locations of different land usages. It is concluded that, while the reduction in human activities after non-festival midnights or the reduction in moon illumination near the new moon epoch led to darker night skies, brightening of the night skies may be attributed to firework displays during the nights of Spring Festival in 2019. On the other hand, the absence of firework during the Spring Festival in 2020 may explain the darker night skies. Finally, there is an evidence that the urban developments in Wuxi are degrading night sky quality.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3054
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Author Leung, J.M.; Martinez, M.E.
Title Circadian Rhythms in Environmental Health Sciences Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Current Environmental Health Reports Abbreviated Journal Curr Environ Health Rep
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Review; Human Health; Asthma; Biomarkers; Breast cancer; Circadian rhythms; DNA methylation; Environmental health
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore how circadian rhythms influence disease susceptibility and potentially modify the effect of environmental exposures. We aimed to identify biomarkers commonly used in environmental health research that have also been the subject of chronobiology studies, in order to review circadian rhythms of relevance to environmental health and determine if time-of-day is an important factor to consider in environmental health studies. Moreover, we discuss opportunities for studying how environmental exposures may interact with circadian rhythms to structure disease pathology and etiology. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the study of circadian rhythms in mammals has flourished. Animal models revealed that all body tissues have circadian rhythms. In humans, circadian rhythms were also shown to exist at multiple levels of organization: molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, including responding to oxidative stress, cell trafficking, and sex hormone production, respectively. Together, these rhythms are an essential component of human physiology and can shape an individual's susceptibility and response to disease. Circadian rhythms are relatively unexplored in environmental health research. However, circadian clocks control many physiological and behavioral processes that impact exposure pathways and disease systems. We believe this review will motivate new studies of (i) the impact of exposures on circadian rhythms, (ii) how circadian rhythms modify the effect of environmental exposures, and (iii) how time-of-day impacts our ability to observe the body's response to exposure.
Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, Room 16-421C, New York, NY, USA. mem2352@cumc.columbia.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2196-5412 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32662059 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3055
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Author Helbich, M.; Browning, M.H.E.M.; Huss, A.
Title Outdoor light at night, air pollution and depressive symptoms: A cross-sectional study in the Netherlands Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages 140914
Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health
Abstract Background

Artificial light at night (ALAN) may be an anthropogenic stressor for mental health disturbing humans' natural day–night cycle. However, the few existing studies used satellite-based measures of radiances for outdoor ALAN exposure assessments, which were possibly confounded by traffic-related air pollutants.

Objective

To assess 1) whether living in areas with increased exposure to outdoor ALAN is associated with depressive symptoms; and 2) to assess the potential confounding effects of air pollution.

Methods

We used cross-sectional data from people (N = 10,482) aged 18–65 years in the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ–9). Satellite-measured annual ALAN were taken from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. ALAN exposures were assessed at people's home address within 100 and 600 m buffers. We used generalized (geo)additive models to quantify associations between PHQ–9 scores and quintiles of ALAN adjusting for several potential confounders including PM2.5 and NO2.

Findings

Unadjusted estimates for the 100 m buffers showed that people in the 2nd to 5th ALAN quintile showed significantly higher PHQ–9 scores than those in the lowest ALAN quintile (βQ2 = 0.503 [95% confidence interval, 0.207–0.798], βQ3 = 0.587 [0.291–0.884], βQ4 = 0.921 [0.623–1.218], βQ5 = 1.322 [1.023–1.620]). ALAN risk estimates adjusted for individual and area-level confounders (i.e., PM2.5, urbanicity, noise, land-use diversity, greenness, deprivation, and social fragmentation) were attenuated but remained significant for the 100 m buffer (βQ2 = 0.420 [0.125–0.715], βQ3 = 0.383 [0.071–0.696], βQ4 = 0.513 [0.177–0.850], βQ5 = 0.541 [0.141–0.941]). When adjusting for NO2 per 100 m buffers, the air pollutant was associated with PHQ–9 scores, but ALAN did not display an exposure-response relationship. ALAN associations were insignificance for 600 m buffers.

Interpretation

Accounting for NO2 exposure suggested that air pollution rather than outdoor ALAN correlated with depressive symptoms. Future evaluations of health effects from ALAN should consider potential confounding by traffic-related exposures (i.e., NO2).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3056
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Author Schröter-Schlaack, C.; Schulte-Römer, N.; Revermann, C.
Title Lichtverschmutzung – Ausmaß, gesellschaftliche und ökologische Auswirkungen sowie Handlungsansätze Type Report
Year (down) 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 186 Issue Pages 1-200
Keywords Review; Skyglow; Ecology; Human Health; Lighting; Public Safety; Remote Sensing
Abstract Künstliches Licht kann als eine der größten technischen Errungenschaften der Menschheit angesehen werden, die erhebliche Veränderungen bzw. Fortschritte der Arbeits- und Lebensweisen ermöglichen. Mit künstlicher Beleuchtung wird aber auch der natürliche Rhythmus von Tag und Nacht verändert und damit das Gesamtgefüge des Naturhaushaltes und der Nachtlandschaft transformiert. Ein natürlich dunkler Nachthimmel ist in Deutschland selten geworden. Licht-glocken über urbanen Gebieten sind weit weg von ihrem Entstehungsort in unbeleuchteten Gebieten noch sichtbar und lassen Sterne und die Milchstraße unkenntlich werden. Nicht nur das direkte elektrische Licht erleuchtet unsere Umwelt, sondern auch der nach oben abgestrahlte und reflektierte Teil des Lichts. Schichten der Atmosphäre, Staub oder Wassertropfen reflektieren und streuen das Licht. Dieser auch als Skyglow bezeichnete Effekt bewirkt eine zusätzliche Erhellung. Neben dieser künstlich erhöhten Himmelshelligkeit kann Licht auch die direkte Umgebung ungewollt aufhellen oder durch Blendung das Sehen einschränken. Licht ist ein wichtiger externer Zeitgeber für die innere Uhr der Lebewesen, an dessen natürlichen Rhythmus sich Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen über Jahrhunderte angepasst haben. So wird vermutet, dass die permanent und periodisch veränderten Lichtverhältnisse durch zunehmende künstliche Beleuchtung negative Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit haben und ebenso zu ökologischen Beeinträchtigungen führen.All diese nichtintendierten Wirkungen der künstlichen Beleuchtung werden unter dem Sammelbegriff Lichtverschmutzung verstanden. Lichtverschmutzung ist hier definiert als unerwünschte Wirkung künstlicher Beleuchtung im Außenbereich, also das Licht, das räumlich (Richtung und Fläche), zeitlich (Tages- und Jahreszeit, Dauer, Periodizität) oder in der Intensität oder spektralen Zusammensetzung (z.B. Ultraviolett- oder Blauanteil) über den reinen Beleuchtungszweck hinaus nicht beabsichtigte Auswirkungen hat (Kuechly et al. 2018). Mit dem vorliegenden Bericht werden der wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis-stand im Hinblick auf Umfang und Trends der Lichtverschmutzung sowie ihre wirtschaftlichen und soziokulturellen, humanmedizinischen und ökologischen Wirkungen zusammengefasst. Auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse und aktueller beleuchtungstechnologischer und lichtplanerischer Möglichkeiten werden Handlungsoptionen abgeleitet, die eine Verringerung der Lichtverschmutzung bei gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der nutzbringenden Ziele der Beleuchtung unterstützen können.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB) Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3058
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Author Nadybal, S.M.; Collins, T.W.; Grineski, S.E.
Title Light pollution inequities in the continental United States: A distributive environmental justice analysis Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res
Volume 189 Issue Pages 109959
Keywords Society; Environmental justice; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status; United States
Abstract Excessive exposure to ambient light at night is a well-documented hazard to human health, yet analysts have not examined it from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective. We conducted the first EJ study of exposure to light pollution by testing for socially disparate patterns across the continental United States (US). We first calculated population-weighted mean exposures to examine whether ambient light pollution in the US differed between racial/ethnic groups. We then used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEEs) that adjust for geographic clustering to examine whether light pollution was distributed inequitably based on racial/ethnic composition and socioeconomic status across US neighborhoods (census tracts). Finally, we conducted a stratified analysis of metropolitan core, suburban, and small city–rural tracts to determine whether patterns of inequity varied based on urban-rural context. We found evidence of disparities in exposures to light pollution based on racial/ethnic minority and low-to-mid socioeconomic statuses. Americans of Asian, Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity had population-weighted mean exposures to light pollution in their neighborhoods that were approximately two times that of White Americans. GEEs indicated that neighborhoods composed of higher proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or renter-occupants experienced greater exposures to ambient light at night. Stratified analyses indicated that those patterns of inequity did not substantially vary based on urban-rural context. Findings have implications for understanding environmental influences on health disparities, raise concerns about the potential for a multiple environmental jeopardy situation, and highlight the need for policy actions to address light pollution.
Address Department of Geography, University of Utah, 260 Central Campus Dr., Rm. 4625, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3059
Permanent link to this record